Leffingwell & Associates
Services and Software for the Perfume, Flavor, Food and Beverage Industries
Home
Our Products
Download Demos
F&F Companies
F&F Info
F&F Top Ten
Chemoreception
Chirality & Odour
Menthol Info
F&F Patents
F&F Reviews
Perfume Info
Aromatherapy
Food Science
Herbs/Botanical
Molecular Modeling

 

Translate

Click Here for our "Flash" Intro Page

Welcome to the Leffingwell & Associates Web site. We are dedicated to serving the Perfume, flavor, food and beverage community with information, products and services.

This Web site offers information on interesting subjects related to Perfume and Flavor Chemistry...and many links for those interested in flavors, fragrance, olfaction, herbs and spices, botanical medicine, as well as organoleptic properties and molecular visualization of selected flavor & fragrance materials.

Givaudan names Maurizio Volpi President of the Fragrance Division - Geneva, 5 September 2014 – Givaudan announced today the appointment of Maurizio Volpi as President of Fragrances replacing Michael Carlos, who will retire on 31 December 2014. Maurizio Volpi, currently Regional Head of Western and Eastern Europe (WEE) for the Consumer Products business, will work closely with Michael Carlos to ensure a smooth transition of activities until the end of the year. Michael Carlos will retire following a distinguished 30-year career with Givaudan.

Frutarom 1st Half 2014 Sales - Haifa, Israel – August 20, 2014 - First half 2014 Frutarom sales grew 26.7% and attained a half-year sales record of US$406.5 million. In the first half of the year net profit rose by 38.3% to reach a record level for a half-year period of US$43.8 million compared with US$31.6 million in the parallel period, with net margin this year adding up to 10.8% compared with 9.9% in the first half of last year. First half of 2014 Frutarom sales in the Flavors field increased by 23.4% compared with the first half of 2013 to reach US$290.9 million and constituted 71.5% of total sales. In Q2 2014, Frutarom sales grew by 29.3% to US$218.1 million. In pro-forma terms, the growth for the quarter reached 6.2%.

Firmenich Names Gilbert Ghostine as Chief Executive Officer to succeed Patrick Firmenich - August 19, 2014 - After more than 12 years at the head of the company, Patrick Firmenich, CEO, announced his desire to hand over his current position while taking on increased responsibilities at the Board level. Upon accepting his request, the Board of Firmenich has appointed Gilbert Ghostine as Chief Executive Officer to succeed Patrick Firmenich, effective October 1st 2014. Gilbert Ghostine was, most recently, President, Asia Pacific at Diageo, the world’s leading premium drinks company. Patrick Firmenich has been named Vice Chairman of Firmenich, effective October 2014. To ensure an orderly transition, Patrick Firmenich will assist Gilbert Ghostine through to the end of January 2015, while taking on his new role as Vice Chairman of the Board.

Monell Center Names Robert F. Margolskee as New President and Director - August 18, 2014 - The Board of Directors of the Monell Chemical Senses Center has named Robert F. Margolskee, MD, PhD as the Center’s next President and Director, effective October 1, 2014. Margolskee will be the Center’s third Director since its founding in 1968, succeeding Gary K. Beauchamp, PhD, who has led Monell since July 1990.

Takasago 1st Qtr 2014-2015 Sales - August 8, 2014 - Takasago 1st Qtr sales for the period April 1 to June 30, 2014 increased 2.0% to ¥ 33,433 million from the prior year period. Net income fell to ¥ 924 milion (-39.1%).

T. Hasegawa 9 Months 2013-2014 Sales Results - August 8, 2014 - for the 9 months ending June 30, 2014 T. Hasegawa's consolidated net sales were up 1.35% to ¥ 33,643 million compared to ¥ 33,194 in the prior year. Net income for the 3 Qtr period decreased 6.1% to ¥ 2,616 million from ¥ 2,785 million in the prior year.

Symrise 1st Half 2014 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - August 7, 2014 - Symrise 1st Half 2014 total sales increased 0.8% in euros (and 5.9% in local currencies) to 941.8 million from 934.7 million in the 1st Half 2013. The Scent & Care division grew to 492.5 million from 490.3 million in the previous year (+0.5% in euros, while in local currency, this corresponds to + 5.8 %). Flavor & Nutrition generated sales of 449.3 million in the first half of 2014 (up from: 444.4 million in 2013). This corresponds to an increase of 6.1 % in local currency and +1.1% in euros. Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization without special items (EBITDAN) increased significantly by 9 % to 209 million (H1 2013: 191 million).

IFF 1st Half 2014 Sales - New York - August 5, 2014 - Reported net sales for the first half of 2014 totaled $1,558.638 million (+4.9%) vs 2013. 2nd Qtr sales increased 4.1% to $788.414 million. 1st Half fragance sales were $816.620 million (+8.2%). 2nd Qtr fragrance sales increased 7.6% to $412.901 million. 1st Half flavor sales were $742.018 million (+1.6%) while 2nd Qtr flavor sales were 375.513 million (+0.4%). Net income for the 1st Half of 2014 was $216.992 million (+12.4%).

Sensient F&F Half Year 2014 Sales - Milwaukee, July 24, 2014 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported half year revenue of $429.571 million, a decline of 2.9% while operating income increased 5.1% to $63.493 million. 2d Qtr sales declined 4.6% to $216.192 million as 2d Qtr operating income increased to $33.554 million (+4.9%).

Givaudan Half year 2014 Sales - Geneva, 17 July 2014 – Givaudan Group sales for the first six months of the year totalled CHF 2,191 million, an increase of 4.5% on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 1.5% in Swiss francs. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 1,034 million, an increase of 4.8% on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 1.2% in Swiss francs. Flavour Division sales were CHF 1,157 million, an increase of 4.3% on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 1.8% in Swiss francs. Net income for the first six months of 2014 was CHF 305 million compared to CHF 271 million in 2013, an increase of 12.6%. This results in a net profit margin of 13.9%, versus 12.2% in 2013.

ADM Acquisition of Wild Flavors - Decatur Ill., July 7, 2014 – Archer Daniels Midland Company (NYSE: ADM) today announced that it is acquiring Wild Flavors GmbH, giving ADM the ability to offer food and beverage companies a comprehensive suite of systems to enhance and improve their products. In an all-cash transaction valued at approximately 2.3 billion enterprise value, ADM will pay 2.2 billion to Wild Flavors shareholders Dr. Hans-Peter Wild and funds affiliated with Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P., and assume approximately 0.1 billion of net debt. The transaction is contingent on regulatory approvals and is expected to close by year end. Wild Flavors, with more than 3,000 customers worldwide and estimated 2014 net revenues of about 1 billion, offers food and beverage companies full flavor and ingredient solutions—known as flavor systems—and fruit juice concentrates and blends, as well as other food and beverage ingredients, including natural flavors and extracts, mint oils and flavors, colors from natural sources, sweetening systems, seasonings, specialty ingredients, taste modifiers, and fermentation technologies. “Together, ADM and Wild Flavors will create one of the leading flavor and specialty ingredient companies in the world, with sales approaching $2.5 billion and significant room to grow,” Woertz said. “Wild Flavors will be able to reach more customers with an expanded portfolio of innovative ingredients. And ADM, with our own sizeable specialty ingredient business, will have an enhanced platform for the commercialization of our higher-margin food and wellness ingredients. “Together, we will be uniquely positioned to offer a broad range of customers—from the largest CPG’s to fast-growing innovators—comprehensive systems-based solutions for food, beverage and personal care products. With our combined global networks, world-class research & innovation capabilities, Wild Flavors’ natural flavor systems, and ADM’s texture, nutrition and functional solutions, we will create an unmatched capability to respond to local consumer preferences and offer complete food solutions that taste great. “The addition of Wild Flavors balances and extends our value chain,” Woertz said. “It is consistent with our long-term strategy to diversify the crops we process and expand and diversify our product portfolio. It complements the ingredient, organic-growth investments we’ve recently made—including our Brazil protein complex and soluble-fiber expansion in China. And it is consistent with actions we’ve taken to dampen the volatility of our earnings mix and deliver on our commitment to profitable growth. The acquisition will meet our return objectives, with estimated cost and revenue synergies of 100 million by year three.” Dr. Hans-Peter Wild, chairman of Wild Flavors GmbH, said, “I am very pleased by ADM’s acquisition of Wild Flavors and the future business we will build together. Wild Flavor’s unique natural flavors strength and total systems approach will create a very strong and positive development platform within ADM for our customers as we continue to drive innovation in the food and beverage industry. With the strong financial resources, and expanded customer base, product offering and global footprint, I am confident Wild Flavors will be well-positioned for growth.” “We have tremendous respect for the culture and business that Dr. Wild has built,” Woertz said. “Given the strong brand Wild Flavors has with customers around the world, we intend to maintain the Wild Flavors name and grow the brand and the innovative, entrepreneurial culture that sustains it. We appreciate the difference in our business models, and will support continued success of the Wild Flavors model by establishing a new business unit called Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients. The new unit will include many of our specialty ingredients. We are also excited to work with the Wild Flavors team. With more than 400 scientists and applications specialists and a global sales force, they will bring exceptional expertise and new capabilities.” Johannes Huth, member and head of KKR Europe, Africa and Middle East operations, said: “Wild Flavors represented for KKR the opportunity to partner with an innovative family entrepreneur in developing a high-quality, R&D driven, Germany-based Mittelstand business. The partnership was tailored to the family ownership and the vision of Dr. Wild to develop Wild Flavors into a globally integrated producer of flavors and flavor systems. The substantial growth and global expansion of Wild Flavors over these past years helped make the company an attractive and valuable partner for an industry-leading global company like ADM.”

Givaudan Acquires Soliance - June 3, 2014 - Geneva, 3 June 2014 – Givaudan announced that it has acquired 100% of the shares of Soliance SA and its subsidiaries. Gilles Andrier, CEO of Givaudan, said: “Soliance represents Givaudan’s first acquisition since that of Quest. Its current portfolio of active cosmetic ingredients and strong process development and research capabilities fit well into the five strategic pillars of Givaudan.” Soliance currently has two sites in France, located in Pomacle and Ile Grande, and employs 96 people. While terms of the deal have not been disclosed, the Soliance operations would have represented approximately CHF 25 million of incremental sales to Givaudan’s results in 2013 on a proforma basis. Givaudan will fund the transaction from existing resources.

Frutarom 1st Qtr 2014 Sales - Haifa, Israel – May 21, 2014 - Frutarom sales in Q1 2014 grew by 23.9% to reach US$188.5 million. Net profit rose 30.5% to reach US$18.3 million for the quarter. Flavor Activity sales for Q1 2014 increased by 21.3% reaching a first quarter record US$134.2 million, 71.2% of Frutarom’s total sales, compared with US$110.6 million in the same quarter last year. Currency fluctuations contributed 1.2% to growth. The acquisitions made during 2013 and at the beginning of 2014 contributed US$19 million to sales. Organic growth (net of the contribution from the acquisitions) in the Flavor Activity reached 4.2%.

Takasago Full Year 2013-2014 Sales - May 14, 2014 - Takasago sales increased 10.1% to ¥ 118,973 million from ¥ 131,036 in the prior year ending March 31. Net income decreased to ¥ 3,025 million from ¥ 4673 milllion.

T. Hasegawa Half Year 2013-2014 Sales Results - May 9, 2014 - for the 1st 6 months ending March 31, 2014, T. Hasegawa reported sales of ¥ 21,696 million compared to ¥ 21,079 million in the prior year period, an increase of 2.9%.

Symrise 1st Qtr 2014 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - May 6, 2014 - Symrise 1st Qtr 2014 total sales increased 2.6% in euros (and 7.9% in local currencies) to 469.6 million from 457.6 million in the 1st Qtr 2013. The Scent & Care division grew to 254.6 million from 245 million in the previous year (+3.9% in euros, while in local currency, this corresponds to + 9.3 %). Flavor & Nutrition generated sales of 215 million in the first quarter of 2014 (up from: 212.6 million in 2013). This corresponds to an increase of 6.2 % in local currency and +1.1% in euros.

IFF 1st Qtr 2014 Sales - New York - May 6, 2014 - Reported net sales for the first quarter totaled $770.2 million, an increase of 5.8% from $727.8 million in the first quarter of 2013. Excluding the impact of foreign currency, local currency sales increased 7%. Local currency sales growth was 7% in the emerging markets and 5% in the developed markets. Sales to the emerging markets accounted for 49% of total company sales. As expected, our January 15th acquisition of Aromor contributed approximately 1% of growth to the sales increase. Net income totaled $106.7 million compared with net income of $90.7 million in the prior year first quarter. The Fragrances Business Unit reported a net sales increased of 8.7% to $403.7 million in the first quarter of 2014 compared with $371.5 million in the first quarter of 2013. The Flavors Business Unit reported a net sales increased of 2.8% to $366.5 million, compared with $356.4 million in the first quarter of 2013. Excluding the impact of foreign currency, Flavors local currency sales growth was 5% this quarter.

Robertet 1st Qtr 2014 Sales - 29 April 2014 - Robertet has reported revenues for the first quarter 2014 of 98.482 million euros, a decline of 2.2%, while in constant currency it would be the same level as 2013. The Fragrance Division was essentially flat with sales of 35.802 million euros compared to 35.756 million euros in 2013. Flavor sales decreased 4.3% to 36.431 million euros and Raw material sales decreased 2.6% to 25.657 million euros.

Sensient F&F 1st Qtr 2014 Sales - Milwaukee, Apr. 14, 2014 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported first quarter revenue of $213.4 million compared to the $215.8 million reported in last year’s first quarter. Operating income increased 5.4% to $29.9 million, compared to $28.4 million in the first quarter of 2013. The Flavors & Fragrances Group’s operating margin increased to 14.0% in the quarter.

Symrise to Acquire Diana Group - Holzminden, Germany - April 12, 2014 - Symrise AG has submitted a binding offer and has entered into exclusive discussions with the owners of Diana Group with regards to the acquisition of Diana Group, one of the most attractive assets in the flavor and nutrition space. With the planned transaction, Symrise will significantly expand its position in the Flavor & Nutrition market, strengthen its backward integration and expand its activities into the highly attractive Pet Food market. The investment amounts to EUR 1.3 billion, for which Symrise has already secured the required bridge financing. The final financing structure will comprise of debt and equity. The acquisition is expected to be fully EPS accretive from 2015 onwards. In 2013, Diana had sales of ca. EUR 425 million and an EBITDA margin of ca. 21 %. The proposed transaction is subject to consultation with the worker’s council and to antitrust clearance.

Givaudan 1st Qtr 2014 Sales - Geneva, 11 April 2014 – In the first three months of 2014 Givaudan recorded sales of CHF 1,087 million, a decline of 0.2% in Swiss francs and an increase of 5.7% on a like-for-like basis compared to the previous year (like-for-like basis excludes the impact of currency, acquisitions and disposals). The Fragrance Division recorded sales of CHF 516 million, a slight decrease of 0.2% in Swiss francs, and a growth of 5.6% on a like-for-like basis. The Flavour Division reported sales of CHF 571 million, representing 5.8% growth on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 0.1% in Swiss francs. Sales for Asia Pacific increased 10.5% on a like-for-like basis. Sales in Europe, Africa and the Middle East grew 3.5% on a like-for-like basis. Latin America experienced double-digit growth of 15.4% on a like-for-like basis. Sales increased by 0.2% on a like-for-like basis in North America. The developing markets grew by 9.8% on a like-for-like basis.

CPL Aromas Press Release on the Visually Impaired as Fragrance Evaluators – April 1, 2014 - The visually impaired have a heightened sense of odor perception. CPL Aromas encourages Fragrance Houses throughout the world to consider training and employing the visually challenged. (Note - When John Leffingwell was employed at the Glidden facility in Jacksonville [Now Renessenz] in 1964, the company employed six blind individuals in fragrance quality control. And no flavor or fragrance ingredient was ever released for shipment without their approval.)

Frutarom Full Year 2013 Sales - Haifa, Israel – March 19, 2014 - Frutarom's revenues Grew by 9% to US $674 Million; EBITDA increased by 15.5% to US $116 Million; Net profit rose 22% to US $64 Million. 4th Qtr. revenues for 2013 rose to US $192 million reflecting 6.2% organic growth. Frutarom revenues would have reached US$ 784 million and net profit would have been $70 million, if the four acquisitions made in 2013 had been consolidated as of Jan-1-2013.

Symrise Full Year 2013 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - March 13, 2014 - Symrise 2013 sales increased 5.5% to 1,830.4 million (+10% in local currencies). Group net income increased 9.4% to 172.3 million. Scent & Care 2013 sales increased 8.7% to 960 million (+13% in local currencies). Flavor & Nutrition 2013 sales increased 2.1% to 870 million (+7% in local currencies).

Kerry completes acquisition of Wynnstarr Flavors - Beloit, Wis., 11 March 2014 - On February 25, 2014 Kerry Group announced the acquisition of Wynnstarr Flavors. The acquisition was completed December 2, 2013. The acquisition of Wynnstarr, combined with Kerry’s recent acquisitions of Cargill Flavor Systems and FlavourCraft and earlier acquisitions of Agilex, Manheimer and Flavurence, reinforces Kerry’s position as a top global flavor house to food and beverage companies.

Robertet Full Year 2013 Sales - 24 February 2014 - Robertet has reported sales for 2013 of 389.489 million euros vs. 395.601 million euros in 2012 (-1.54%) . At constant exchange rates, sales were +1%.. The unaudited consolidated earnings were in line with expectations and amounted to slightly more than EUR 25 million, down about 8%. Final results will be published no later than 30 April 2014.

Givaudan to Acquire Soliance - Geneva, 21 February 2014 – Givaudan today announced that it has entered into exclusive negotiations to acquire 100% of the shares of Soliance SA and its subsidiaries. Soliance is currently a division of ARD (Agro Industrie Recherches & Développements). Soliance provides innovative cosmetic solutions to its international clients and partners and develops high added-value active ingredients, derived from vegetable sources, microorganisms and microalgae. Soliance currently has two sites in France, located in Pomacle and Ile Grande, and employs 77 people. While terms of the deal have not been disclosed, the Soliance operations would have represented approximately CHF 25 million of incremental sales to Givaudan’s results in 2013 on a proforma basis. Givaudan plans to fund the transaction from existing resources. The transaction is expected to close in the second quarter of 2014, subject to the customary closing approvals and conditions which includes consultations with the employee representative bodies.

Mane - Full Year 2013 Sales increase - February 19, 2014 - Mane achieved consolidated sales of 723.2 million in 2013, up 13.3% from 638.4 million in 2012 (personal communication).

IFF Full Year & 4th Qtr 2013 Sales - New York - Feb. 13, 2014 - Revenue for the full year increased 4.7% to $2,952.9 million. Local currency sales increased 5% for the full year. On a like-for-like basis (LFL), which excludes the exit of Flavors low-margin sales activities, local currency sales increased 6%. The emerging markets grew by 10% and accounted for 49% of full year sales. Full year Fragrance sales increased 6% to $1,530.2 million while Flavor sales increased 3.2% to $1,422.7 million. Fourth Qtr Sales increased 6.6 % to $725,169 million. Fourth Qtr Fragrance sales increased 7.9% to $382,216 million while Fourth Qtr Flavor sales increased 5.1% to $342,953 million. For the Full Year, net income increased 39.1% to $353,544 million.

Takasago 9 Month 2013-2014 Sales - February 13, 2014 - 9 Month sales for the year ending ear ending March 31 increased 9.8% to ¥ 99,357 million from the prior fiscal year while net income decreased 16.7% to ¥ 3,377 million.

Sensient F&F Full Year 2013 Sales - Milwaukee, Feb. 10, 2014 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported full year revenue of $881.3 million in 2013, up from $875.3 million last year. Operating income was $122.4 million in 2013 and $123.0 million in 2012. The Flavors & Fragrances Group’s operating margins were 13.9% in 2013 and 14.1% in 2012. The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported 4th quarter revenue of $210.1 million compared to the $216.9 million reported in the comparable period last year. Operating income increased 2% to $29.2 million, compared to $28.7 million in last year’s fourth quarter. Sensient includes "dehydrated vegetables" - now referred to as "natural ingredients", in their Flavors & Fragrances sales numbers. In 2013 this was 27% of sales. Accordingly, 2013 sales for conventional Flavors & Fragrances were ~$643.3 million.

Givaudan Full Year 2013 Sales - Geneva, 30 January 2014 – Givaudan Group full year sales were CHF 4,369 million, an increase of 5.5% on a like-for-like basis and 2.6% in Swiss francs vs. 2012. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 2,083 million, an increase of 5.1% on a like-for-like basis and 3.0% in Swiss francs. Flavour Division sales were CHF 2,286 million, an increase of 5.8% on a like-for-like basis and 2.3% in Swiss francs. Gross margin increased to 44.7% from 42.4%. Net income increased to CHF 490 million in 2013 from CHF 410 million in 2012, an increase of 19.5%.

IFF Acquires Aromor- New York-Jan. 16, 2014-- International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. announced that it has completed the acquisition of Aromor Flavors and Fragrances Ltd., a privately held manufacturer and marketer of complex specialty ingredients that are used in fragrances and flavors. While terms of the transaction have not been disclosed, the Aromor operations would have represented approximately $35 million of incremental sales to IFF’s results in 2013 on a proforma basis. IFF funded the transaction from existing resources. Aromor will become part of the IFF Fragrances Ingredients business and is expected to be accretive to IFF’s earnings per share in 2014.

Frutarom 9 Month 2013 Sales - Haifa, Israel – November 27, 2013 - In the first nine months of 2013 Frutarom’s sales rose to $481.9 million, up 1.85% from 2012. 9 month Flavor sales flavor sales grew 2.8% to $355.1 million. Net profit for the first nine months increased 17.4% to $48.7 million. Net profit net of one-time expenses increased 22.3% to $50.3 million.

Takasago Half Year 2013-2014 Sales - November 13, 2013 - Takasago's half year sales for the period ending September 30, 2013 increased 10.1% to ¥ 66,234 million from ¥60,152 million in the prior year. In terms of profits, operating income was ¥ 4,388 million (up 15.2% year on year), and ordinary income was ¥ 4,604 million (up 20.0% year on year). Net income came to ¥ 2,178 million (down 17.5% year on year) as a result of posting a ¥ 1,338 million loss for the fire accident at Hiratsuka Factory. The Flavors segment recorded net sales of ¥ 41,428 million (up 10.4% year on year), mainly reflecting growth in sales at subsidiaries in the United States. In the Fragrances segment, net sales came to ¥ 16,179 million (up 19.0% year on year), as sales remained strong at subsidiaries in Asia. In the Aroma Chemicals segment, net sales were ¥ 5,405 million (up 17.1% year on year) mainly attributable to the positive effect of foreign exchange. In the Fine Chemicals segment, net sales were ¥ 2,550 million (down 31.1% year on year) due to the dismal performance of pharmaceutical intermediates. In the Real Estate segment, net sales were ¥ 670 million (down 6.5% year on year).

T. Hasegawa Full Year 2012-2013 Sales Results - November 8, 2013 - for the 12 months ending September 30, 2013 T. Hasegawa's consolidated net sales were up 1.6% to ¥ 45,104 million compared to ¥ 44,386 in the prior year. Net income for the period increased 36.0% to ¥ 3,518 million.

Symrise 9 Month 2013 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - November 5, 2013 - Symrise 9 months 2013 sales increased 6.2% to 1,401.2 million (+9.9% in local currencies). Scent & Care 9 month 2013 sales increased 9.8% to 736.3 million (+13.5% in local currencies). Flavor & Nutrition 9 month 2013 sales increased 2.5% to 664.9 million (+6.2% in local currencies).

IFF 9 Month & 3 Qtr 2013 Sales - New York, November 5, 2013 - IFF 9 months net sales increased 4.1% to $2,227.7 million while 3d Qtr sales increased 4.7% to $742.3 million. 9 month Flavor sales increased 2.6% to $1079.8 million while 3d Qtr Flavor sales increased 2.6% to $349.4 million. 9 month Fragrance sales increased 5.4% to $1147.9 million while 3d Qtr Fragrance sales increased 6.7% to $392.9 million.

Sensient F&F 3d Qtr & 9 Month 2013 Sales - Milwaukee, Oct. 17, 2013 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported 3d Qtr revenue of $226.27 million vs $224.7 million in 2012 (+0.7%). For the 9 month period, sales increased 2% to $671.23 million.

Robertet 9 Month 2013 Sales - 14 October 2013 - Robertet has reported 9 month sales for 2013 of 298.056 million euros, a decrease of -2.37% from 2012.

 


Now Purchase online
For past News visit our Archives
Flavor & Fragrance Top Ten - 2013 Sales Volume Estimates - As of May 14, 2014.

Flavor Properties of FEMA GRAS List 26 flavor chemicals - New 2014

Flavor-Base - 9th Edition - A new version to the world's most extensive database on flavoring materials and food additives.

ESO 2000 (update 2006) - The Complete Database of Essential Oils - try the demo from the cloud on any Windows PC, Apple® PC or IPad® at https://use.cloudshare.com/Pro/ShareEnv/JITXR2L4KMVG

Beverage-Master 2011 - A new version with enhanced features for Excel 2007 & 2010. The world's leading program for beverage development.

Juice-Master 2011 - A new version with enhanced features for Excel 2007 & 2010. The leading program for development of juice containing beverages.

Oxidative Coupling of Aldehydes & Imines I. An Entry to the Synthesis of 6,6,7,7-Tetraalkyl Tropane Alkaloid Analogs, Leffingwell Reports, Vol 6. (No 1), 1-18, June 2014 - by John C. Leffingwell

Oxidative Coupling of Aldehydes & Imines II. An Entry to the Synthesis of Tropane Alkaloid Analogs (di & triazabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ones) by Dipolar Additions, Leffingwell Reports, Vol. 6 (No. 2), 1-9, July 2014 - by John C. Leffingwell

Oxidative Coupling of Aldehydes & Imines III. An Entry to the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Pyrrolidines, Leffingwell Reports, Vol. 6 (No. 3), 1-12, July 2014 - by John C. Leffingwell

Wilkinson Sword Cooling Compounds: From the Beginning to Now, Perfumer & Flavorist, Vol. 39, 3 [March Issue], 2014, pp. 34-43 - by John C. Leffingwell & David G. Rowsell

Identification of the Volatile Constituents of Cyprian Latakia Tobacco by Dynamic and Static Headspace Analyses - November 2013 - by John C. Leffingwell, E.D. Alford, Diane Leffingwell & Roger Penn

Aroma Constituents of a Supercritical CO2 Extract of Kentucky Dark Fire-Cured Tobacco - July 2013 - by John C. Leffingwell, E.D. Alford & Diane Leffingwell

Flavor Properties of FEMA GRAS List 25 flavor chemicals - June 2011

Chiral chemistry in flavours & fragrances - March 31, 2011 - a new article by John C. & Diane Leffingwell from the March 2011 issue of Speciality Chemicals Magazine.

Volatile Constituents of the Giant Puffball Mushroom (Calvatia gigantea) - March 26, 2011 - by John C. Leffingwell & E.D. Alford - a new article disclosing the first report of anthranilate esters in a mushroom species.

Cooling Ingredients and Their Mechanism of Action, by John C. Leffingwell in Handbook of Cosmetic Science and Technology, Third edition, André O. Barel, Marc Paye, and Howard I. Maibach, Editors, Pub: Informa Healthcare: New York. Chapter 65, pp. 661-675 (2009) - sign in at Amazon to read the article.

The Taste of Carbonation - October 2009 - Charles S. Zuker and co-workers shed light on the receptor mechanism(s) that drive the sensory perception of CO2 in the October 16th issue of Science magazine.

Electronic 'nose' could shed light on sense of smell - Chemical World, April 2009 Issue - Korean researchers combine human smell receptors with nanotechnology to create a new kind of 'bio-electronic nose' that they hope will help improve understanding of the human sense of smell. For the original article - go to Polypyrrole Nanotubes Conjugated with Human Olfactory Receptors...

The sweet scent of success by Emma Davies, Chemistry World, Vol 6 (2 ), February 2009 - Interesting insights into some of the world's most celebrated perfume molecules. To download a pdf file of this article, click HERE

Molecular mechanism for the umami taste synergism - An article by F Zhang et al, PNAS, 2008, DOI: 10.1073_pnas.0810174106 - a proposed unique venus fly-trap molecular mechanism by which molecules drastically enhance umami flavour - the savoury taste associated with protein-rich foods such as meat, cheese and seafood.

Perfumers' odor perception space - An article by Manuel Zarzo & David T. Stanton, Understanding the underlying dimensions in perfumers' odor perception space as a basis for developing meaningful odor maps, Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 71(2), 225-247 (2009)

The Flavor & Fragrance Market - Article by Herta Ziegler in the 2007 book Flavourings: Production, Composition, Applications, Regulations

Scents of Precious Woods, an article by John Leffingwell on the odor active enantiomers of the world's most important aromatic woods and modern replacement aroma chemicals.

Chirality & Bioactivity: Pharmacology - an article by John Leffingwell tracing the history & importance of chirality and bioactivity.

ESO 2000 (update 2006) - a major update of ESO - The Complete Database of Essential Oils. The new ESO 2000 (update 2006) has 33% more analyses with 21% more chemical compounds than its earlier version.

PMP 2001 Rated the Top Ranked Olfactory Database - In J. Chem. Inf. Model. 2006, 46, 32-38, Comparing the Information Content of Two Large Olfactory Databases by Marco Pintore, et. al., ..."But more important for the aim of this work, all validation and prediction scores associated with the PMP 2001 data sets were clearly superior to the Arctander ones, with differences ranging between 5 and 20%. Then, these results seem to indicate the information content included in the PMP 2001 database is more trustable and it should be adopted as reference database for deeper studies on more extended olfactory data sets."

I n  t h e  N e w s 
Articles and Information of interest to the Flavorist, Perfumer or those interested in the Chemistry of Natural Botanical properties. 
Special Features on this Site

Visit the BACIS web pages - now on our site (Boelens Aroma Chemical Information Service). Lots of free information.

  Olfaction - A Review

Menthol - A COOL Site:
  Menthol - Background & Organoleptic Properties
  Cool without Menthol & Cooler than Menthol
The Leffingwell Reports
  Odor and Flavor Detection Thresholds
  Search PubMed .... from our site
Phytochemical & Ethnobotanical Database Search... from our site 
  Lycopene - An Ultimate Phytochemical Nutraceutical?
  Carotenoid Precursors of Aroma Constituents
  Boronia - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Saffron - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Rose - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Osmanthus - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Tobacco - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Aldehydes - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization - Updated April 24, 2010
  Alkenols: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization - Updated April 24, 2010
  Burnt Sugar Notes: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization - Updated April 24, 2010
  delta-Lactones - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization - Updated April 24, 2010
  Esters - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization - Updated April 24, 2010
  gamma-Lactones - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization - Updated April 24, 2010
  Pyrazines - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization - Updated April 24, 2010
  GC-MS analysis of hardwood smoke flavor.
  GC-MS analysis of Dark Fire-cured Tobacco
Download the Leffingwell Reports as Acrobat Reader (pdf) files
  VCF 2000 - Volatile Compounds in Food. VCF, the world authority on the occurrence of flavour chemicals, contains all data from the publication Volatile Compounds in Food, Qualitative and Quantitative Data, Seventh Edition (including all Supplements and revisions until Autumn 1999), by the TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute in Zeist, The Netherlands. (Co-editor: M.H. Boelens, BACIS, Huizen, The Netherlands.)
The database provides answers to questions such as: What volatile compounds occur in a particular product? In what products does a particular volatile compound occur? What is the range of concentrations of a compound in a particular product? Can a compound be considered a natural constituent of a particular product? What publications (reviews) have appeared with respect to a particular product in recent years?
VCF 2000 contains: 
Chemical Identities and CAS/FEMA-GRAS/CE numbers (if known) of more than 7,100 Flavour Chemicals; 
The Qualitative and Quantitative Occurrence of these Flavour Chemicals in about 450 Food Products; 
More than 4,500 references (including reviews) related to these products; 
Email: leffingwell@mindspring.com
Copyright © 1999-2008 by Leffingwell & Associates

************************

Firmenich 2012-2013 Sales - Oct. 10, 2013 - For the financial year ended June 30, 2013, Firmenich posted sales of CHF 2,890 million, an increase of 9.6%. Perfumery posted single-digit sales growth in local currencies. Flavors recorded high single-digit sales growth while Ingredients sales were down slightly in fiscal year 2013.

Givaudan 9 Month 2013 Sales - Geneva, 10 October 2013 – In the first nine months of 2013 Givaudan recorded sales of CHF 3,318 million, an increase of 5.0% on a like-for-like¹ basis and 2.7% in Swiss francs compared to the previous year. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 1,579 million for the first nine months of 2013, an increase of 4.5% on a like-for-like basis and 3.0% in Swiss francs. Flavour Division sales were CHF 1,739 million during the first nine months of 2013, an increase of 5.4% on a like-for-like basis and 2.4% in Swiss Francs. (Note*- like-for-like excludes the impact of currency, acquisitions and disposals).

Robertet 1st Half 2013 Sales - 13 September 2013 - Robertet has reported 1st Half sales for 2013 of 203.543 million euros, a decrease of -0.6% over 2012.

T. Hasegawa 9 Months 2012-2013 Sales Results - August, 2013 - for the 9 months ending June 30, 2013 T. Hasegawa's consolidated net sales were up 1.2% to ¥ 33,194 million compared to ¥ 32,792 in the prior year. Net income for the period increased 30.3% to ¥ 2,785 million.

Takasago 1st Qtr 2013-2014 Sales - August 12, 2013 - Takasago 1st Qtr sales for the period April 1 to June 30, 2013 increased 6.6% to ¥ 32,773 million from the prior year.

Frutarom 1st Half 2013 Sales - Haifa, Israel – August 21, 2013 - Frutarom’s 1st Half 2013 revenues increased 1.5% to US $320.8 million while income rose to 31.6 million (+17%). 2 Qtr revenues were US $168.6 million, a 2.3% increase in USD compared to Q2 2012.

Symrise 1st Half & 2 Qtr 2013 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - August 7, 2013 - Symrise 1st Half 2013 sales increased 7.2% to 934.7 million (+9.5% in local currencies) compared to the prior year. 2 Qtr sales increased 8.7% to 477.1 million. Net income for the 1st Half increased 7.7% to 93.4 million. Scent & Care 1st Half 2013 sales increased 10.3% to 490.3 million (+12.5% in local currencies). Flavor & Nutrition 1st Half 2013 sales increased 4.0% to 444.4 million (+6.5% in local currencies).

IFF 1st Half & 2 Qtr 2013 Sales - New York, August 6, 2013 - IFF net sales increased 3.7% in the 1st half of 2013 to $1485.5 million. Net income for the 1st half 2013 increased 13.8% to $193 million. 2d Qtr net sales were $757.6 million (+5.0%). In the 2d Qtr, like-for-like sales, which excludes the impact of foreign currency and the exit of low-margin sales activities in Flavors, increased 8%. 1st half 2013 Fragrance sales were up 4.8% to $755.1 million. 2d Qtr Fragrance sales were $383.6 million (+6.6%). 1st half 2013 Flavor sales increased 2.7% to $730.4 million. 2d Qtr Flavor sales were $374 million (+3.5%).

Sensient F&F 1st Half & 2d Qtr 2013 Sales - Milwaukee, July 26, 2013 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported half year revenue of $445 million vs. $433.6 million in 2012 (+ 2.6%). 2 Qtr F&F revenue was $227.9 million vs. $218.9 million in 2012 (+ 4.1%).

Givaudan Half year 2013 Sales - Geneva, 25 July 2013 – Givaudan Group sales for the first six months of the year totalled CHF 2,225 million, an increase of 5.7% on a like-for-like basis and 4.7% in Swiss francs. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 1,047 million, an increase of 5.5% on a like-for-like basis and 5.3% in Swiss francs. Flavour Division sales were CHF 1,178 million, an increase of 5.8% on a like-for-like basis and 4.1% in Swiss francs. Net income for the first six months of 2013 was CHF 271 million compared to CHF 200 million in 2012, an increase of 35.5%. This results in a net profit margin of 12.2%, versus 9.4% in 2012.

Wild Flavors Full Year 2012 Sales - July 16, 2013 - For 2012 Wild Flavors has reported sales of 838 million, an increase of 29% from 650 million in 2011. On November 1, 2011, Wild Flavors acquired all shares in A. M. Todd India Pvt. Ltd. and certain assets and liabilities of A. M. Todd and its applicable subsidiaries in the US, the UK and France. On June 29, 2012, Wild Flavors and Cargill entered into a sale of business agreement for the acquisition of production facilities and working capital positions relating to Cargill's juice and blends business located in the Netherlands, the US and Japan. The company with its origins in Heidelberg, Germany was established in 1931. On January 27, 2010 entrepreneur Dr. Hans-Peter Wild entered into a strategic alliance with the international private equity firm Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P. (KKR) that now holds a 35% stake in the business.

Takasago Full Year 2012-2013 Sales - May 20, 2013 - Takasago sales increased 4.7% to ¥ 118,973 million from the prior year ending March 31. Net income increased to ¥ 4673 million from ¥ 1,774 milllion (+163.4%)

Symrise 1st Qtr 2013 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - May 7, 2013 - Symrise 1st Qtr 2013 sales increased 5.8% to 457.6 million (+7.9% in local currencies) compared to the prior-year-quarter. Net income for the quarter in creased 6.9% to 46 million. Scent & Care sales increased 8.9% to 245.0 million (+11.1% in local currencies). Flavor & Nutrition sales increased 2.3% to 212.6 million (+4.3% in local currencies).

IFF 1st Qtr 2013 Sales - New York, May 7, 2013 - IFF net sales for the first quarter totaled $727.8 million, an increase of 2% from $710.6 million in the first quarter of 2012. Excluding the impact of foreign currency, local currency sales increased 3%. On a like-for-like basis, which excludes the exit of low-margin sales activities in Flavors, local currency sales increased 4%. Net income totaled $90.7 million for the Qtr, compared with net income of $81.1 million in 2012 (+18.4%). The Fragrances Business sales increased 3% to $371.5 million. The Flavors Business Unit sales increased 2% to $356.4 million.

Sensient F&F 1st Qtr 2013 Sales - Milwaukee, April 18, 2013 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported revenue of $217.0 million in the 1st Qtr of 2013, compared to $214.7 million in the comparable period in 2012. Operating income for the quarter was $28.9 million compared to $29.1 million in last year’s first quarter. The Flavors Business Unit

Givaudan 1st Qtr 2013 Sales - Geneva, 16 April 2013 – In the first three months of 2013 Givaudan recorded sales of CHF 1,088.9 million, an increase of 3.9% on a like-for-like basis, and 2.7% in Swiss francs compared to the previous year. The Fragrance Division recorded sales of CHF 517.1 million, a growth of 4.2% on a like-for-like basis and 3.6% in Swiss francs. Sales growth has been driven by the good growth in Consumer Products, whereas sales in Fine Fragrances and Fragrances Ingredients were lower than in the first quarter of 2012. The Flavour Division reported sales of CHF 571.8 million, representing a 3.7% growth on a like-for-like basis and 1.9% in Swiss francs.

Robertet 1st Qtr 2013 Sales - 15 April 2013 - Robertet has reported 1st Qtr sales for 2013 of 100.712 million euros, an increase of 0.75% over 2012. Fragrance sales increased 2.53 % to 35.756 million euros. Flavour sales decreased 1.6% to 38.081 million euros and Ingredient sales increased 0.5 % to 26.332 million euros.

Senomyx & Firmenich Amend Their Sweet Taste Program Agreement - April 11, 2013 - Senomyx and Firmenich announced that the companies have amended and restated their Sweet Taste Program collaboration agreement. The amended agreement provides that Firmenich will have exclusive rights to commercialize certain Senomyx sweet flavor ingredients discovered under the collaboration in food and select beverage product categories for a period of time. After this initial period, Senomyx will begin selling the flavor ingredients to other flavor companies while Firmenich continues sales to food and beverage companies. Senomyx’s initiation of its new direct sales strategy is intended to accelerate the Company’s transformation into a profitable company by expanding its focus from discovery & development into commercialization. Senomyx’s flavor ingredient portfolio will initially focus on sweet flavor modifiers, which can be used to restore the desired taste profile of products in which sucrose has been reduced. The first product will be S9632, which Senomyx intends to sell to flavor companies for end-use in non-alcoholic and powdered beverages, with the anticipated availability of commercial quantities of S9632 by the fourth quarter of 2013. The sweet flavor modifier S6973 will become available for sale by Senomyx for use in food and certain beverage categories at a future date. In addition, Senomyx may also decide in the future to directly commercialize other flavor ingredients to expand its portfolio and further support the direct sales strategy. Concurrent with the amendment, Senomyx and Firmenich have also entered into a Supply Agreement under which Firmenich has agreed to supply Senomyx with commercial quantities of certain sweet flavor ingredients. The Supply Agreement has a term of ten years, and is exclusive through 2017. This relationship streamlines and accelerates the launch of Senomyx’s direct sales strategy, without the Company having to incur the cost of sourcing and establishing manufacturing capabilities at this time.

FEMA GRAS List 26 - 5 February 2013 - Now available: 26. GRAS Flavoring Substances List: This list of substances will appear in the 26th publication (GRAS 26) authored by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association on recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) under conditions of their intended use in food flavorings in accordance with the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

Visit our Floriculture Site

Links to Other Sites....Search Our Site

Cool without Menthol & Cooler than Menthol and Cooling Compounds as Insect Repellents - Updated August 1, 2014

Chirality & Odour Perception - Updated July 16, 2014 (now with over 1,390 enantiomers)

FEMA Interim GRAS List - July 2014 - FEMA has released the latest interim GRAS list which includes four new additions. Trans-6-octenal (FEMA 4787) is a known compound with a green melon character having an odor threshold in mineral oil of 0.015 ppm and a flavor threshold in mineral oil of 0.001 ppm. See Mans H. Boelens, Organoleptic Properties of Aliphatic Aldehydes, Perfumer & Flavorist, Vol, 12, October/November 1987, pp. 31-43.

........

FEMA # 4798 is 2-(((3-(2,3-Dimethoxyphenyl)-1H -1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)thio)methyl)pyridine - a Senomyx compound which is an umami enhancer . See Catherine Tachdjian et al., Compounds comprising linked heteroaryl moieties and their use as novel umami flavor modifiers, tastants and taste enhancers for comestible compositions, United States Patent Application 20130071536, Published: 03/21/2013.

........

FEMA # 4802 is (S)-1-(3-(((4-amino-2,2-dioxido-1H benzo[c][1,2,6]thiadiazin-5-yl)oxy)methyl)piperidin-1-yl)-3-methylbutan-1-one - a Senomyx compound which is a sweetness enhancer. See Catherine Tachdjian et al., Sweet flavor modifier, United States Patent Application 20140094453, Published: 04/03/2014.

........

FEMA # 4809 is 2-(4-Methylphenoxy)-N -(1H -pyrazol-3-yl)-N -(thiophen-2-ylmethyl)acetamide - a Senomyx compound which is a cooling agent. See Chad Priest et al., Compounds useful as modulators of TRPM8, United States Patent Application 20130324557, Published: 12/05/2013. See also Torsten Kulke et al. (Symrise AG), Preparations, WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/090293, Published: 06/19/2014 for additional comments on the Senomyx work.

........

FEMA - Safety Assessment and Regulatory Authority to Use Flavors: Focus on E-Cigarettes

FEMA - The FEMA GRAS™ Status of Flavors – Focus on Biotechnology and Other New Methods of Production - Discusses the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the production of flavoring substances.

IOFI Global (Flavourings) Reference List (GRL) - Released April 2014 - contains all FEMA, EU Flavis and JECFA materials.

IOFI Natural Complex (Flavourings) Substances (GRL) - Released February 2013 - contains all FEMA, FDA and COE materials.

New EU Flavoring Regulations - Released October 2, 2012

China Flavor Regulations

Natural flavours ‘identified in nature’ to have major industry impact - report - January 2, 2012

Aspects of Oral Perception

Flavor Properties of GRAS List 25 flavor chemicals

 

.......

Scent and Chemistry - This book is the long awaited completely revised and extended edition of Günther Ohloff's standard work "Scent and Fragrances: The Fascination of Odors and Their Chemical Perspectives". The prominent chemists Günther Ohloff, Wilhelm Pickenhagen, and Philip Kraft convey the scientist, the perfumer, as well as the interested layman with a vivid and up-to-date picture of the state of the art of the chemistry of odorants and the research in odor perception. The book details on the molecular basis of olfaction, olfactory characterization of perfumery materials, structure-odor relationships, the chemical synthesis of odorants, and the chemistry of essential oils and odorants from the animal kingdom, backed up by ca. 400 perfumery examples and historical aspects.

Firmenich's New Enantioselective Synthesis of (-)-beta-Santalol

...

Charles Fehr and co-workers at Firmenich have designed the "right cat for the desired odor". In WIPO Patent Application WO/2009/141781 (November 26, 2009), they disclose a novel, and seemingly practical, approach to the synthesis of beta-Santalol (the Golden Grail of Sandalwood odor). See also - Charles Fehr, Iris Magpantay, Jeremy Arpagaus, Xavier Marquet, Magali Vuagnoux, Enantioselective Synthesis of (-)-beta-Santalol by a Copper-Catalyzed Enynol Cyclization-Fragmentation Reaction, Angewandte Chemie, Volume 121, Issue 39, Date: September 14, 2009, Pages: 7357-7359

PMP 2001
Database of Perfumery Materials & Performance
Chemical Identities, Odour Descriptions, Performance, Application and references to RIFM monographs (where possible) of more than 4,100 perfumery materials; Stability Records of all materials in 21 endproducts and in water pH 1 - 12; More than 3,200 Commercial Names and Synonyms with suppliers; The possibility to search on Chemical Identity, CAS number, Odour Description and Stability. 

FRM 2001 - The Complete Database of Flavour (Raw) Materials
Chemical identities, Chemical Abstracts Service registry numbers (CAS), FEMA-GRAS Substance numbers and Council of Europe numbers of more than 5,500 Flavour Materials; among these are all GRAS lists materials and more than 1,400 materials from natural sources; More than 550 suppliers for these materials, with addresses, telephone and fax numbers; An indication of the Occurrence, Flavour and Application of each material; One or two references of the most recent literature on more than 4,500 materials. 

The Musk & Fragrance Controversy - download the Draft for public hearing from the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation entitled Fragrances 2000

   G u e s t  B o o k
Sign our guest book to receive product notices and press releases.

NEW from Oliemans Punter & Partners


Check this out - its outstanding!


"Odour and Flavour threshold values in air, water and other media" by L.J. van Gemert. Available now: an impressive collection of odour & flavour threshold values starting from the early days of olfactory research, including literature references, compiled by L.J. van Gemert, formerly of TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, Zeist, The Netherlands.
- from Oliemans Punter & Partners.

Visit Perfumer's World and download the Perfumer's Workbook (free) to see the future of computing in formulation creativity.
 

© 2014 Leffingwell & Associates. General Notice: Leffingwell & Associates strives to ensure that the information contained in this Web site is accurate and reliable. However, Leffingwell & Associates and the Web Master are not infallible, and errors may sometimes occur. Therefore, Leffingwell & Associates disclaims any warranty of any kind, whether express or implied, as to any matter whatsoever relating to this Web site, including without limitation the merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Leffingwell & Associates will from time to time revise the information, services and the resources contained in this Web site and reserves the right to make such changes without any obligation to notify past, current or prospective visitors. In no event shall Leffingwell & Associates be liable for any indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages arising out of any use of the information contained herein. Copyright Notice: The graphic images, buttons, and text contained in this Web site are the exclusive property of the Leffingwell & Associates and, except for personal or internal use, may not be copied, distributed, or displayed, or reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Leffingwell & Associates. All rights reserved.