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Welcome to the Leffingwell & Associates Web site. We are dedicated to serving the Perfume, flavor, food and beverage community with information, products and services.

This Web site offers information on interesting subjects related to Perfume and Flavor Chemistry...and many links for those interested in flavors, fragrance, olfaction, herbs and spices, botanical medicine, as well as organoleptic properties and molecular visualization of selected flavor & fragrance materials.

IFF 1st Half 2015 Sales - New York - August 10, 2015 - IFF's sales for the first 6 months of 2015 declined 1% to $1,542.4 million. 2d Qtr sales declined 2.6% to $767.5 million. Fragrance unit sales in the 1st Half were $792.9 million (-2.9%) while 2d Qtr fragrance sales declined 4.3% to $395.1 million. 1st half Flavor unit sales were $749.6 million (+1%) while 2d Qtr flavor sales declined 1% to $372.5 million. On a currency neutral basis 1st half total sales increased 6%.

Takasago 1st Qtr 2015-2016 Sales - August 8, 2015 - 1st Qtr Takasago sales for the period ending June 30, 2015 increased 8.6% to ¥ 36,314 million from ¥ 33,433 million in the prior year period. 1st Qtr net income increased 183.2% to ¥ 2,619 million.

T. Hasegawa 9 Month 2014-2015 Sales Results - August 7, 2015 - for the 9 months ending June 30, 2015, T. Hasegawa reported sales of ¥ 34,402 million compared to ¥ 33,643 million in the prior year (+2.3%). Nine month net income declined 14.1% to ¥ 2,248 million.

Symrise 1st Half 2015 Sales – August 6, 2015 - For the first half of the year, Symrise increased its sales by 41% to 1,330.8 million (H1 2014: 941.8 million). At local currency, this represents a sales growth of 32%. Along with 268.0 million in sales from the activities of Diana, which were acquired last year, the Company benefited above all from strong demand for natural flavors and cosmetic ingredients. Excluding the contributions from Diana, Symrise increased its sales by 13% (local currency: 6%) and thus once again significantly outperformed the global market for fragrances and flavors, which is estimated to be growing at a rate of 2-3 % per year. Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) were up by 44% to 300.3 million (H1 2014 normalized: 209.0 million). The Flavor & Nutrition segment increased sales by 75% (65% in local currency) to 784.3 million in the first half of the year (H1 2014: 449.3 million). Adjusted for consolidation effects from Diana, sales in the segment rose by 15% (9% in local currency). The strongest growth among regions was in Latin America, where sales rose by 155% in local currency. Sales in North America nearly doubled, with a 92% year-on-year gain. In the EAME and Asia/Pacific regions, Flavor & Nutrition achieved a sales growth of 60% and 35%, respectively. For the first half of the year, sales in the Scent & Care segment rose by 11% to 546.5 million (H1 2014: 492.5 million). At local currency, sales increased by 2%. The segment particularly benefited from strong demand for menthol and cosmetic ingredient applications.With an increase of 18 % at local currency, Scent & Care achieved its largest gains in Latin America. The Asia/Pacific and EAME regions posted sales in local currency of 2% and 1%, respectively. In North America, sales were down 5% compared to the strong first half of 2014.

Sensient F&F 1st Half 2015 Sales - Milwaukee, July 23, 2015 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported first half sales revenues of $410.6 million vs. $431.8 million in 2014 (-4.9%). Operating income for Flavors & Fragrances declined 2.2% to $63 million. 2d Qtr F&F sales declined 5.9% to $204.6 million. F&F 2d Qtr operating income was $32.5 million (-4.7%).

Flavouring substance considered a safety concern - 23 July 2015 - The flavouring substance p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al (Perilla aldehyde) has been shown to be genotoxic (damaging to DNA) in a new study on animals, evaluated by EFSA’s experts. Under the EU system devised to evaluate flavourings, Perilla aldehyde is also a proxy for evaluating nine other structurally similar chemicals known collectively as “alicyclic aldehydes”. EFSA’s experts, therefore, indicate there is also a potential safety concern for these other substances unless further evidence proves otherwise. EU risk managers will consider how to best use EFSA’s scientific opinion in weighing up possible follow-up measures.

Givaudan 1st Half 2015 Sales - Geneva, 17 July 2015 - In the first half, Givaudan Group sales for the first six months of the year were CHF 2,184 million, an increase of 1.3% on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 0.3% in Swiss francs. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 1,023 million, flat on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 1.1% in Swiss francs. Flavour Division sales were CHF 1,161 million, an increase of 2.6% on a like-for-like basis and 0.4% in Swiss francs. Net income for the first six months of 2015 was CHF 339 million compared to CHF 305 million in 2014, an increase of 11.2%. This results in a net profit margin of 15.5% versus 13.9% in 2014.

FEMA GRAS List 27 - July 7, 2015 - The GRAS 27 list is now available. The list of substances, accompanying use level tables and supplementary information are part of the 27th publication by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association on recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients generally recognized as safe under the Food Additives Amendment. The GRAS 27 publication will appear in the August issue of Food Technology.

Firmench - Sharing Innovation - July 2, 2015 - Firmenich announces the launch of the their 2015 collection of Sharing Innovation ingredients.

Huaboa Intl. Full Year 2014-2015 Sales - June 23, 2015 - Huaboa International total sales for the year ending March 31, 2015 was 4,326.5 million Hong Kong dollars (+2.1%) of which ~78.1% was from the flavors & fragrance related segments. The F&F segments sales increase was +6.7% to 3,380.9 million HKD = ~U.S. 436 million.

FEMA Responds to the Center for Public Integrity's Misleading Article on Flavor Safety - June 11, 2015 - On June 9, 2015 the Center for Public Integrity posted an article ( Food flavor safety system a ‘black box’ ) on it's website. These should be reviewed by all in the industry.

Symrise to Acquire Flavor Infusion – June 5, 2015 - Symrise AG is strengthening its product offering for natural beverage ap-plications and further expands into the strongly growing market of fla-vored water: The Company signed an agreement to acquire Flavor Infusion, a highly specialized supplier for natural beverage solutions in North America, from its founders. With this investment, Symrise is gaining immediate access to the company’s profound knowledge as well as already marketed products and its most reputable customer base. California-based Flavor Infusion generates turnover of about US$ 10 million. Symrise will integrate the activities of Flavor Infusion in its US Flavor & Nutrition business immediately after closing, which is expected in the third quarter 2015.

Frutarom 1st Qtr 2015 Sales - Haifa, Israel – May 20, 2015 - Frutarom sales in the 1st Qtr were US$ 194.2 million (+3.0%). 1st Qtr 2015 net profit rose by 17.1% to reach US$ 21.4 million, compared to US$ 18.3 million in the 1st Qtr 2014. Frutarom sales from Flavors activity in Q1 2015 as reported in US dollar terms totaled US$ 133.4 million as opposed to US$ 134.2 million in Q1 2014. Frutarom sales from Specialty Fine Ingredients activity in Q1 2015 as reported in US dollar terms rose 5.5% to reach US$ 43.2 million as opposed to US$ 41.0 million in Q1 2014.

A doctoral defense delayed by injustice - for 77 years - We’ve heard of people taking a long time to get their Ph.D.s, but Ingeborg Syllm-Rapoport surely holds the record. More than 8 decades elapsed between the time she entered graduate school studying diphtheria at the University of Hamburg in Germany and her successful thesis defense.

Takasago Full Year 2014-2015 Sales - May 14, 2015 - Takasago sales increased 0.5% to ¥ 131,653 million from ¥ 131,036 in the prior year ending March 31. Net income decreased 15.7% to ¥ 2,549 million from ¥ 3,025 milllion.

IFF 1st Qtr 2015 Sales - New York - May 12, 2015 - IFF 1st Qtr sales increased $4.7 million, or 0.6%, to $774.9 million from $770.2 million in the prior year quarter. Currency neutral sales (formerly referred to as local currency sales) increased 6% reflecting broad-based growth in both businesses and across all regions. Sales to the emerging markets, which now represent 51% of total company sales, grew 9% on a currency neutral basis. 1st Qtr 2015 Flavor sales were $377.1 million (+2.9%). Currency neutral Flavor sales grew 9% in the first quarter with growth across all regions led by double-digit growth in Latin America and North America and high single-digit growth in EAME. Fragrance sales were $397.8 million (-1.5%). Currency neutral Fragrance sales growth was +5%. IFF's 1st Qtr net income was $128.3 million, +20.2% from 2014.

T. Hasegawa Half Year 2014-2015 Sales Results - May 11, 2015 - for the 1st 6 months ending March 31, 2015, T. Hasegawa reported sales of ¥ 21,879 million compared to ¥ 21,696 million in the prior year period, an increase of 0.8%. Half year net income declined 25.2% to ¥ 1,573 million.

Vibration Theory of Olfaction Takes a Hit - May 8, 2015 - An international team of scientists led by University at Albany Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Eric Block, have demonstrated that the vibrational theory of olfaction, one of the two major theories explaining how the sense of smell functions, is not plausible. In a paper entitled "Implausibility of the vibrational theory of olfaction" (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2015, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1503054112), Block and co-authors found that the human musk-recognizing receptor, OR5AN1, identified using a heterologous OR expression system and robustly responding to cyclopentadecanone (Exaltone®) and muscone, fails to distinguish isotopomers of these compounds in vitro. Furthermore, the mouse (methylthio)methanethiol-recognizing receptor, MOR244-3, as well as other selected human and mouse ORs, responded similarly to normal, deuterated, and 13C isotopomers of their respective ligands, paralleling results with the musk receptor OR5AN1. These findings suggest that Luca Turin's proposed vibration theory does not apply to the human musk receptor OR5AN1, mouse thiol receptor MOR244-3, or other ORs examined. Also, contrary to the vibration theory predictions, muscone-d30 lacks the 1,380- to 1,550-cm-1 IR bands claimed to be essential for musk odor. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the proposed electron transfer mechanism of the vibrational frequencies of odorants could be easily suppressed by quantum effects of nonodorant molecular vibrational modes. These and other concerns about electron transfer at ORs, together with extensive experimental data, argue against the plausibility of the vibration theory. In the May 4th issue of C&EN News Turin responded "...that Block and colleagues did their experiments with cells in a dish rather than within whole organisms. ... and that expressing an olfactory receptor in human embryonic kidney cells doesn’t adequately reconstitute the complex nature of olfaction and is not biologically significant".

Symrise 1st Qtr 2015 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - May 5, 2015 - Symrise 1st Qtr 2015 group sales increased 42.2% in euros (and 33% in local currencies) to 668 million from 469.6 million in the first 3 months of 2013. Net income for the period increased 31 % to 68.0 million vs 51.9 in 2013. Flavor & Nutrition posted a sales growth of 79.2 % (70 % at local currency) in the first quarter, with sales totaling 385.3 million (Qtr1 2014 = 215.0 million). Scent & Care 1st Qtr sales increased by 11.1 % to 282.8 million (3% in local currencies) vs. 2014 sales of 254.6 million. Dr. Heinz-Jürgen Bertram, CEO of Symrise AG, said: “We had an excellent start into the year. The strong growth across all segments and regions shows that we are ideally positioned with our clear strategy and unique set-up. Diana has more than fulfilled our expectations following its integration. But Symrise also achieved new records in terms of growth and profitability with its existing customer base. Despite uncertainties in individual markets, we remain confident for the coming quarters.”

IFF Completes Acquisition of Ottens Flavors - New York, May 1, 2015 - International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. (NYSE:IFF), a leading global creator of flavors and fragrances for consumer products, today announced that it has successfully completed the previously announced acquisition of Henry H. Ottens Manufacturing Co., Inc. Financial terms of the transaction were not disclosed.

Sensient F&F 1st Qtr 2015 Sales - Milwaukee, April 20, 2015 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported first quarter revenue of $206.0 million compared to the $214.3 million reported in last year’s first quarter (-3.9%). Operating income increased 0.7% to $30.5 million, compared to $30.2 million in the first quarter of 2014. Beginning in the first quarter of 2015, the results of operations for the Company’s businesses in Central and South America, previously reported in the Corporate & Other segment, are now reported in the Flavors & Fragrances segment. Results for 2014 have been restated to reflect these changes. The 2015 and 2014 restructuring and other costs related to continuing operations are reported in the Corporate & Other segment.

IFF to Acquire Ottens Flavors to Strengthen North American Business - New York, April 13, 2015 - International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. announced that it has entered into an agreement to acquire Henry H. Ottens Manufacturing Co., Inc. “This acquisition is an exciting one as it’s the first step in our redefined strategy to win where we compete,” said IFF Chairman and CEO Andreas Fibig". "Once completed, the deal will strengthen our operations in North America and enhance our ability to meet the needs of our customers through a differentiated service model geared towards enhancing collaboration and building greater customer intimacy. We’re looking forward to welcoming Ottens Flavors’ employees into the IFF family.” The transaction, which will be funded from existing resources, is expected to add approximately $60 million in revenue on an annualized basis and be slightly accretive to IFF’s earnings per share in 2015, excluding transaction costs. Financial terms of the deal have not been disclosed.

Givaudan 1st Qtr 2015 Sales - Geneva, 10 Apr 2015 - In the first three months of 2015, Givaudan recorded sales of CHF 1,091 million, an increase of 0.9% on a like-for-like basis, and 0.4% in Swiss francs compared to the previous year. The Fragrance Division recorded sales of CHF 519 million, a growth of 0.3% on a like-for-like basis and an increase of 0.7% in Swiss francs. Including Soliance, the growth was 2.0% in local currencies. The sales of Soliance, which was acquired on 2 June 2014, amounted to CHF 8 million for the first three months of 2015, a double-digit growth when compared to the same period of last year. The Flavour Division reported sales of CHF 572 million, a growth of 1.5% on a like-for-like basis and a slight increase of 0.1% in Swiss francs.

Food for fuel: Biofuels policies cut emissions by cutting food consumption- April 9, 2015 - Biofuels policies rely on cutting food consumption in order to reduce emissions, according to a study published in the journal Science.

Firmenich Appoints New Chief Research Officer - Geneva, Switzerland, March 24, 2015 – Firmenich appoints Professor Geneviève Berger as Chief Research Officer, effective July 1st 2015. She will report directly into the Group CEO, Gilbert Ghostine, as a member of his executive team, after most recently serving as Chief Research and Development Officer at Unilever. Professor Berger will be based in Geneva, Switzerland and succeed to Dr. Toni Gautier, who is retiring from the Group at the end of June.

Frutarom Full Year 2014 Sales - Haifa, Israel – March 16, 2015 - Frutarom sales for the full year 2014 increased 21.6% to U.S. $819.5 million. Net income for the year increased 37.7% to $87.6 million. Flavors and Specialty Fine Ingredients sales grew to $741.0 million (+16.9%).

T. Hasegawa 1st Qtr 2014-2015 Sales Results - for the 3 months ending December 31, 2014 T. Hasegawa's consolidated net sales were down -3.5% to ¥ 10,430 million compared to ¥ 10,806 in the prior year. Net income for the period declined 34.8% to ¥ 552 million.

Symrise Full Year 2014 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - March 10, 2015 - In the fiscal year 2014, Symrise AG exceeded its targets and substantially expanded its market position. Group sales increased 15.8% to 2120.1 million from 1830.4 million in 2013. In local currencies, sales increased 18.3%. 4th Qtr performance was particularly strong, with an increase in Group sales to 590.1 million vs. 2013 at 429.2 million (+37.5%). Net income normalized for one-time effects was up 23 % to 211.6 million. Full year Scent & Care sales were 980.4 million vs. 960.4 million in 2013 (+2.1%). Full year Flavor & Nutrition sales increased 31% to 1139.7 million vs. 869.9 million in 2013. This includes 233.9 million contributed from the Diana Group acquisition since July 2014.

Robertet Full Year 2014 Sales - 3 March 2013 - Robertet has reported 12 month revenues of 390,055 euros (+0.2% from 2013).

Takasago 9 Month 2014-2015 Sales - February 12, 2015 - Takasago's 9 Month sales for the period ending December 31 were ¥ 99,085 million (-0.3%). Net income for the 9 month period declined 3.6 % to ¥ 3,256 million.

IFF Full Year 2014 Sales - New York - February 12, 2015 - Reported net sales for the 2014 full year were $3,088.5 million, up +4.6% from 2013. For the full year, Flavor sales were up +2.4% to $1,457.1 million, while Fragrance sales increased to $1,631.5 million (+6.6%). In the 4th Qtr., IFF net sales increased +4.3% to $756.1 million vs 2013. 4th Qtr. Flavor sales were $356.3 million (+3.9%) while Fragrance sales were $399.8 million (+4.6%). IFF's 2014 net income was $414.5 million, +17.3% from 2013.

Sensient F&F Full Year 2014 Sales - Milwaukee, Feb. 5, 2015 - Sensient's Flavors & Fragrances Group reported full year revenue of $847.0 million and $876.5 million in 2014 and 2013, respectively (-3.4%). Operating income was $119.1 million for the year compared to $120.3 million last year. Foreign currency translation reduced both revenue and operating income by approximately one percent in 2014. In local currency, revenue was off about 1%, and operating income was comparable to 2013. 4th quarter revenue was $201.9 million compared to the $209.0 million in 2013 (-3.4%).

Mane - Full Year 2014 Sales increase - February 4, 2015 - Mane achieved sales of 769 million in 2014, up 6.4% from 723 million in 2013. Using the 2014 yearly average EUR/USD Forex exchange rate, 2014 sales in USD were $ 1,022 million (personal communication).

Carl Djerassi (1923-2015)

Dr. Carl Djerassi, renowned scientist, author, and philanthropist, died peacefully, surrounded by family and loved ones, in his home in San Francisco, California on Friday, January 30, 2015. He was 91. His life and career included remarkable productivity and achievement in science, academia, and the arts, as well as personal tragedy in his expulsion from his childhood home following the Nazi Anschluss in 1938.Best known as one of the inventors who patented the key ingredient that led to the development of the oral contraceptive in 1951, he was also instrumental in creating the first commercial antihistamines in the 1940s. He was the author of more than 1,200 scientific articles.Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Djerassi continued to do significant scientific work, as a professor in the Department of Chemistry at Stanford University, and as an entrepreneur. He pioneered novel physical research techniques for mass spectrometry and optical rotatory dispersion and applied them to the areas of organic chemistry and the life sciences.

Givaudan Full Year 2014 Sales - Geneva, 29 January 2015 – For the full year 2014 Givaudan recorded sales of CHF 4,404 million, an increase of 3.7% on a like-for-like basis and 0.8% in Swiss francs when compared to 2013. Net income was CHF 563 million, up 14.9% year on year. Developing markets grew 7.0%, and mature markets grew 1.1%, both on a like-for-like basis. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 2,108 million, an increase of 3.6% on a like-for-like basis and 1.2% in Swiss francs. Flavour Division sales were CHF 2,296 million, an increase of 3.7% on a like-for-like basis and 0.4% in Swiss francs.

In Memoriam of E. Demp Alford - January 8, 2015 - On January 7th, 2015 Demp Alford passed away at the age of 74 in Louisville KY. A career mass spectroscopist and President of Alford Consulting for the last 20 years, he was well known to those in the flavor & fragrance industry for his unique ability to unravel the most difficult GC-MS analyses. His consulting clients included many well-known companies in the USA, Japan, India and Europe. He was often sought after to assist companies in improving their own GC-MS laboratory techniques.

His generosity in assisting others is exemplified by a note I received from someone he assisted in setting up to be a competitor. "My [GC-MS] consulting business is doing really good and I am so grateful for the opportunity Demp gave me. I think he believed in me before I believed in myself...".

He was an avid gardener, feeding many friends, neighbors and people in need every year. He was known for his strong work ethic, sharp mind and a wonderful sense of humor. He is survived by his wife Donna, his daughter Nikola and three brothers.

Acquisition of Sigma-Aldrich by Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, Receives U.S. Antitrust Clearance - St. Louis, Dec. 23, 2014 - /PRNewswire/ -- Sigma-Aldrich Corporation announced today that the waiting period under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act (HSR Act) in connection with the acquisition expired on December 22, 2014, thereby completing the U.S. HSR Act antitrust notification and review requirement for the acquisition of the Company by Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. U.S. antitrust clearance satisfies another condition to closing the transaction, which remains subject to certain other conditions, including regulatory approval in additional jurisdictions. Sigma-Aldrich shareholders already approved the acquisition at a special meeting held in St. Louis on December 5, 2014. Both companies continue to expect the transaction will close in mid-2015. On September 22, 2014, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, and Sigma-Aldrich announced they had entered into a definitive agreement under which Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, will acquire Sigma-Aldrich for $17.0 billion (13.1 billion), establishing one of the leading players in the $130 billion global life science industry.

Givaudan Continues to Secure and Protect Patchouli Oil Production at the Source - Paris, 15 November 2014 - Givaudan continues the deployment of strategic Initiatives to secure the long term availability and protection of quality natural ingredients used for perfumery. Givaudan announces the establishment of a collection network on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi in addition to the exclusive farming partnership agreement with GaiaOne Sdn Bhd and Gaya Naturals Sdn Bhd in Borneo. See the Givaudan videos on Patchouli sourcing at http://patchouli.givaudan.com/

Mane takes a Majority Stake in Kancor - Dec. 4, 2014 - Mane has taken a majority stake in Kancor, a long term supplier, Jean M Mane, President and CEO of V Mane Fils said while refusing to give any further details of the terms of the agreement. “I am pleased to be taking a majority stake in Kancor, a long-term supplier," said Jean Mane, president and CEO of Mane. "This is in line with our strategy of controlling the sourcing of our natural raw materials.” The two companies have entered into a joint venture partnership for developing various value added products. The partnership creates a unique high technology hub for high quality food and beverage ingredients globally with investments in technology, infrastructure, markets and new products.

Evolva to Acquire Allylix - Reinach, Switzerland and San Diego, California, USA, 18 November 2014 - Evolva Holding SA has agreed to acquire San Diego-based Allylix, Inc., a privately held yeast fermentation company with a focus on high-value ingredients, in an all-stock transaction. The acquisition will immediately expand Evolva’s product and IP portfolio and enhance the competitiveness of Evolva’s stevia products. Evolva will acquire Allylix in return for an overall consideration of 46 million newly-issued Evolva shares (c. 14.1% of Evolva post transaction). Cargill (Evolva’s partner on its stevia program) will invest USD 4 million in Evolva shares in support of the transaction. The transaction is expected to close by mid-December 2014.

Frutarom 9 Month 2014 Sales - Haifa, Israel – November 19, 2014 - Frutarom sales for the first nine months of 2014 increased 28.1% to U.S. $617.3 million. Net income for the 9 month period increased 39.6% to $67.9 million. Flavors and Specialty Fine Ingredients sales grew to $560.8 million (+21.4%).

T. Hasegawa Full Year 2013-2014 Sales Results - November 18, 2014 - for the 12 months ending September 30, 2014 T. Hasegawa's consolidated net sales were down -0.4% to ¥ 44,917 million compared to ¥ 45,104 in the prior year. Net income for the period declined 8.0% to ¥ 3,239 million.

Symrise 9 Month 2014 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - November 17, 2014 - Symrise 9 month 2014 group sales increased 9.2% in euros (and 13% in local currencies) to 1530.0 million from 1401.2 million in the 9 months of 2013. Reported sales include the results of Diana Group as of July 1st. Nine Month 2014 Flavor & Nutrition sales rose 19.3% to 793.2 million. Nine Month 2014 Scent & Care sales were essentially flat at 736.8 million.

Robertet 9 Months 2014 Sales - 14 November 2014 - Robertet has reported 9 month revenues of 294,235 euros (-1.3% from 2013). 3d Qtr sales were up 2.5% to 96,838 euros.

Takasago Half Year 2014-2015 Sales - November 11, 2014 - Takasago's half year sales for the period ending September 30, 2014 increased 0.1% to ¥ 66,305 million from ¥ 66,234 million in the prior year. In terms of profits, operating income was ¥ 2,711 million (down 38.2% year on year), and ordinary income was ¥ 3,220 million (-30.1% year on year). Net income came to ¥ 2,004 million (-8.0%).

IFF 9 Month 2014 Sales - New York - November 4, 2014 - Reported net sales for the first 9 months were up 4.7% to U.S. $2,332.4 million. Nine Month 2014 Flavor sales increased 1.9% to U.S. $1,100.7 million while Fragrance sales increased 7.3% to $1,231.7 million.

Sensient F&F 9 Months 2014 Sales - Milwaukee, October 23, 2014 - Sensient's Flavors & Fragrances Group reported 9 Months revenue of $645.1 million versus $667.5 million in the first nine months of 2013 (-3.4%). Third quarter revenue was $215.5 million compared to $225.0 million reported in last year’s third quarter (-4.2%).

Givaudan 9 Months 2014 Sales - Geneva, 10 October 2014 – In the first nine months of 2014 Givaudan recorded sales of CHF 3,313 million, an increase of 4.5% on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 0.2% in Swiss francs compared to the previous year. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 1,587 million for the first nine months of 2014, an increase of 4.8% on a like-for-like basis and 0.5% in Swiss francs. Sales from Soliance have contributed CHF 8 million since the acquisition on 2 June 2014. Flavour Division sales were CHF 1,726 million during the first nine months of 2014, an increase of 4.2% on a like-for-like basis and a decrease of 0.8% in Swiss francs.

Firmenich 2013-2014 Sales - Oct. 9, 2014 - For the financial year ended June 30, 2014, Firmenich posted sales of CHF 2,952 million, an increase of 2.1% in Swiss francs and 7% in local currencies. Perfumery posted robust sales growth in local currencies as the Body and Home Care segment grew across all key categories and Fine Fragrance delivered steady progression. For the second consecutive year, Flavors recorded solid sales growth, driven by strong performances in Sweet Goods and Savory and modest growth in Beverages. Ingredients sales were in positive territory this year in a context of continued market commoditization.

ADM Completes Acquisition of Wild Flavors - Chicago, Oct. 1, 2014 – Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) today announced that it has completed the acquisition of WILD Flavors GmbH. ADM will form a new business unit, WILD Flavors and Specialty Ingredients, which will include the WILD business as well as the following ADM product lines - Specialty proteins (including isolated soy proteins, textured vegetable protein, soy protein concentrates, and soy flour & grits), Emulsifiers, Edible beans, Natural health and nutrition (natural-source vitamin E, plant sterols, soy isoflavones and Omega-3 DHA), Soluble fiber, Polyols and Hydrocolloids. Greg Morris will be president of the WILD Flavors and Specialty Ingredients business unit. He most recently was ADM’s president, North American Oilseeds Processing. WILD North American Chief Operating Officer Vince Macciocchi has been named global president, WILD Flavors. Mike Ponder, WILD’s chief executive officer, recently announced his retirement and will join former majority owner Dr. Hans-Peter Wild on an advisory board for the business. The new business unit will be a reportable segment beginning Jan. 1, 2015.

Robertet 1st Half 2014 Sales - 18 September 2014 - Robertet has reported revenues of 197,397 euros (-3.0% from the 1st half of 2013). Group performance was in line with expectations with a turnover in local currencies of +1.9%.

Givaudan names Maurizio Volpi President of the Fragrance Division - Geneva, 5 September 2014 – Givaudan announced today the appointment of Maurizio Volpi as President of Fragrances replacing Michael Carlos, who will retire on 31 December 2014. Maurizio Volpi, currently Regional Head of Western and Eastern Europe (WEE) for the Consumer Products business, will work closely with Michael Carlos to ensure a smooth transition of activities until the end of the year. Michael Carlos will retire following a distinguished 30-year career with Givaudan.

Frutarom 1st Half 2014 Sales - Haifa, Israel – August 20, 2014 - First half 2014 Frutarom sales grew 26.7% and attained a half-year sales record of US$406.5 million. In the first half of the year net profit rose by 38.3% to reach a record level for a half-year period of US$43.8 million compared with US$31.6 million in the parallel period, with net margin this year adding up to 10.8% compared with 9.9% in the first half of last year. First half of 2014 Frutarom sales in the Flavors field increased by 23.4% compared with the first half of 2013 to reach US$290.9 million and constituted 71.5% of total sales. In Q2 2014, Frutarom sales grew by 29.3% to US$218.1 million. In pro-forma terms, the growth for the quarter reached 6.2%.

Firmenich Names Gilbert Ghostine as Chief Executive Officer to succeed Patrick Firmenich - August 19, 2014 - After more than 12 years at the head of the company, Patrick Firmenich, CEO, announced his desire to hand over his current position while taking on increased responsibilities at the Board level. Upon accepting his request, the Board of Firmenich has appointed Gilbert Ghostine as Chief Executive Officer to succeed Patrick Firmenich, effective October 1st 2014. Gilbert Ghostine was, most recently, President, Asia Pacific at Diageo, the world’s leading premium drinks company. Patrick Firmenich has been named Vice Chairman of Firmenich, effective October 2014. To ensure an orderly transition, Patrick Firmenich will assist Gilbert Ghostine through to the end of January 2015, while taking on his new role as Vice Chairman of the Board.

Monell Center Names Robert F. Margolskee as New President and Director - August 18, 2014 - The Board of Directors of the Monell Chemical Senses Center has named Robert F. Margolskee, MD, PhD as the Center’s next President and Director, effective October 1, 2014. Margolskee will be the Center’s third Director since its founding in 1968, succeeding Gary K. Beauchamp, PhD, who has led Monell since July 1990.

Takasago 1st Qtr 2014-2015 Sales - August 8, 2014 - Takasago 1st Qtr sales for the period April 1 to June 30, 2014 increased 2.0% to ¥ 33,433 million from the prior year period. Net income fell to ¥ 924 milion (-39.1%).

T. Hasegawa 9 Months 2013-2014 Sales Results - August 8, 2014 - for the 9 months ending June 30, 2014 T. Hasegawa's consolidated net sales were up 1.35% to ¥ 33,643 million compared to ¥ 33,194 in the prior year. Net income for the 3 Qtr period decreased 6.1% to ¥ 2,616 million from ¥ 2,785 million in the prior year.

Symrise 1st Half 2014 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - August 7, 2014 - Symrise 1st Half 2014 total sales increased 0.8% in euros (and 5.9% in local currencies) to 941.8 million from 934.7 million in the 1st Half 2013. The Scent & Care division grew to 492.5 million from 490.3 million in the previous year (+0.5% in euros, while in local currency, this corresponds to + 5.8 %). Flavor & Nutrition generated sales of 449.3 million in the first half of 2014 (up from: 444.4 million in 2013). This corresponds to an increase of 6.1 % in local currency and +1.1% in euros. Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization without special items (EBITDAN) increased significantly by 9 % to 209 million (H1 2013: 191 million).

IFF 1st Half 2014 Sales - New York - August 5, 2014 - Reported net sales for the first half of 2014 totaled $1,558.638 million (+4.9%) vs 2013. 2nd Qtr sales increased 4.1% to $788.414 million. 1st Half fragance sales were $816.620 million (+8.2%). 2nd Qtr fragrance sales increased 7.6% to $412.901 million. 1st Half flavor sales were $742.018 million (+1.6%) while 2nd Qtr flavor sales were 375.513 million (+0.4%). Net income for the 1st Half of 2014 was $216.992 million (+12.4%).

Sensient F&F Half Year 2014 Sales - Milwaukee, July 24, 2014 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported half year revenue of $429.571 million, a decline of 2.9% while operating income increased 5.1% to $63.493 million. 2d Qtr sales declined 4.6% to $216.192 million as 2d Qtr operating income increased to $33.554 million (+4.9%).

Givaudan Half year 2014 Sales - Geneva, 17 July 2014 – Givaudan Group sales for the first six months of the year totalled CHF 2,191 million, an increase of 4.5% on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 1.5% in Swiss francs. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 1,034 million, an increase of 4.8% on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 1.2% in Swiss francs. Flavour Division sales were CHF 1,157 million, an increase of 4.3% on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 1.8% in Swiss francs. Net income for the first six months of 2014 was CHF 305 million compared to CHF 271 million in 2013, an increase of 12.6%. This results in a net profit margin of 13.9%, versus 12.2% in 2013.

ADM Acquisition of Wild Flavors - Decatur Ill., July 7, 2014 – Archer Daniels Midland Company (NYSE: ADM) today announced that it is acquiring Wild Flavors GmbH, giving ADM the ability to offer food and beverage companies a comprehensive suite of systems to enhance and improve their products. In an all-cash transaction valued at approximately 2.3 billion enterprise value, ADM will pay 2.2 billion to Wild Flavors shareholders Dr. Hans-Peter Wild and funds affiliated with Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P., and assume approximately 0.1 billion of net debt. The transaction is contingent on regulatory approvals and is expected to close by year end. Wild Flavors, with more than 3,000 customers worldwide and estimated 2014 net revenues of about 1 billion, offers food and beverage companies full flavor and ingredient solutions—known as flavor systems—and fruit juice concentrates and blends, as well as other food and beverage ingredients, including natural flavors and extracts, mint oils and flavors, colors from natural sources, sweetening systems, seasonings, specialty ingredients, taste modifiers, and fermentation technologies. “Together, ADM and Wild Flavors will create one of the leading flavor and specialty ingredient companies in the world, with sales approaching $2.5 billion and significant room to grow,” Woertz said. “Wild Flavors will be able to reach more customers with an expanded portfolio of innovative ingredients. And ADM, with our own sizeable specialty ingredient business, will have an enhanced platform for the commercialization of our higher-margin food and wellness ingredients. “Together, we will be uniquely positioned to offer a broad range of customers—from the largest CPG’s to fast-growing innovators—comprehensive systems-based solutions for food, beverage and personal care products. With our combined global networks, world-class research & innovation capabilities, Wild Flavors’ natural flavor systems, and ADM’s texture, nutrition and functional solutions, we will create an unmatched capability to respond to local consumer preferences and offer complete food solutions that taste great. “The addition of Wild Flavors balances and extends our value chain,” Woertz said. “It is consistent with our long-term strategy to diversify the crops we process and expand and diversify our product portfolio. It complements the ingredient, organic-growth investments we’ve recently made—including our Brazil protein complex and soluble-fiber expansion in China. And it is consistent with actions we’ve taken to dampen the volatility of our earnings mix and deliver on our commitment to profitable growth. The acquisition will meet our return objectives, with estimated cost and revenue synergies of 100 million by year three.” Dr. Hans-Peter Wild, chairman of Wild Flavors GmbH, said, “I am very pleased by ADM’s acquisition of Wild Flavors and the future business we will build together. Wild Flavor’s unique natural flavors strength and total systems approach will create a very strong and positive development platform within ADM for our customers as we continue to drive innovation in the food and beverage industry. With the strong financial resources, and expanded customer base, product offering and global footprint, I am confident Wild Flavors will be well-positioned for growth.” “We have tremendous respect for the culture and business that Dr. Wild has built,” Woertz said. “Given the strong brand Wild Flavors has with customers around the world, we intend to maintain the Wild Flavors name and grow the brand and the innovative, entrepreneurial culture that sustains it. We appreciate the difference in our business models, and will support continued success of the Wild Flavors model by establishing a new business unit called Wild Flavors and Specialty Ingredients. The new unit will include many of our specialty ingredients. We are also excited to work with the Wild Flavors team. With more than 400 scientists and applications specialists and a global sales force, they will bring exceptional expertise and new capabilities.” Johannes Huth, member and head of KKR Europe, Africa and Middle East operations, said: “Wild Flavors represented for KKR the opportunity to partner with an innovative family entrepreneur in developing a high-quality, R&D driven, Germany-based Mittelstand business. The partnership was tailored to the family ownership and the vision of Dr. Wild to develop Wild Flavors into a globally integrated producer of flavors and flavor systems. The substantial growth and global expansion of Wild Flavors over these past years helped make the company an attractive and valuable partner for an industry-leading global company like ADM.”


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Flavor & Fragrance Top Companies - 2014 Sales Volume Estimates - As of May 15, 2015.

Flavor-Base - 9th Edition - A new version to the world's most extensive database on flavoring materials and food additives.

ESO 2000 (update 2006) - The Complete Database of Essential Oils - More than 4,125 Quantitative Analyses of Essential Oils - for Windows XP, 7, 8, 8.1 (32bit versions only).

Beverage-Master 2011 - A new version with enhanced features for Excel 2007 & 2010. The world's leading program for beverage development.

Juice-Master 2011 - A new version with enhanced features for Excel 2007 & 2010. The leading program for development of juice containing beverages.

Flavours & fragrances: Recent advances in biotechnology, Speciality Chemicals Magazine, May 2015, pp. 32-35 - by John C. Leffingwell & Diane Leffingwell

Biotechnology - Conquests and Challenges in Flavors & Fragrances, Leffingwell Reports, Vol. 7 (No. 2), 1-11, March 2015 - by John C. Leffingwell & Diane Leffingwell

Identification of the Volatile Constituents of Raw Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) by Dynamic Headspace Analyses, Leffingwell Reports, Vol. 7 (No. 1), 1-14, January 2015 - by John C. Leffingwell, E.D. Alford, Diane Leffingwell

Oxidative Coupling of Aldehydes & Imines I. An Entry to the Synthesis of 6,6,7,7-Tetraalkyl Tropane Alkaloid Analogs, Leffingwell Reports, Vol 6. (No 1), 1-18, June 2014 - by John C. Leffingwell

Wilkinson Sword Cooling Compounds: From the Beginning to Now, Perfumer & Flavorist, Vol. 39, 3 [March Issue], 2014, pp. 34-43 - by John C. Leffingwell & David G. Rowsell

Flavor Properties of FEMA GRAS List 26 flavor chemicals - New 2014

Identification of the Volatile Constituents of Cyprian Latakia Tobacco by Dynamic and Static Headspace Analyses - November 2013 - by John C. Leffingwell, E.D. Alford, Diane Leffingwell & Roger Penn

Aroma Constituents of a Supercritical CO2 Extract of Kentucky Dark Fire-Cured Tobacco - July 2013 - by John C. Leffingwell, E.D. Alford & Diane Leffingwell

Flavor Properties of FEMA GRAS List 25 flavor chemicals - June 2011

Chiral chemistry in flavours & fragrances - March 31, 2011 - a new article by John C. & Diane Leffingwell from the March 2011 issue of Speciality Chemicals Magazine.

Volatile Constituents of the Giant Puffball Mushroom (Calvatia gigantea) - March 26, 2011 - by John C. Leffingwell & E.D. Alford - a new article disclosing the first report of anthranilate esters in a mushroom species.

Cooling Ingredients and Their Mechanism of Action, by John C. Leffingwell in Handbook of Cosmetic Science and Technology, Third edition, André O. Barel, Marc Paye, and Howard I. Maibach, Editors, Pub: Informa Healthcare: New York. Chapter 65, pp. 661-675 (2009) - sign in at Amazon to read the article.

The Taste of Carbonation - October 2009 - Charles S. Zuker and co-workers shed light on the receptor mechanism(s) that drive the sensory perception of CO2 in the October 16th issue of Science magazine.

Electronic 'nose' could shed light on sense of smell - Chemical World, April 2009 Issue - Korean researchers combine human smell receptors with nanotechnology to create a new kind of 'bio-electronic nose' that they hope will help improve understanding of the human sense of smell. For the original article - go to Polypyrrole Nanotubes Conjugated with Human Olfactory Receptors...

The sweet scent of success by Emma Davies, Chemistry World, Vol 6 (2 ), February 2009 - Interesting insights into some of the world's most celebrated perfume molecules. To download a pdf file of this article, click HERE

Molecular mechanism for the umami taste synergism - An article by F Zhang et al, PNAS, 2008, DOI: 10.1073_pnas.0810174106 - a proposed unique venus fly-trap molecular mechanism by which molecules drastically enhance umami flavour - the savoury taste associated with protein-rich foods such as meat, cheese and seafood.

Perfumers' odor perception space - An article by Manuel Zarzo & David T. Stanton, Understanding the underlying dimensions in perfumers' odor perception space as a basis for developing meaningful odor maps, Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 71(2), 225-247 (2009)

The Flavor & Fragrance Market - Article by Herta Ziegler in the 2007 book Flavourings: Production, Composition, Applications, Regulations

Scents of Precious Woods, an article by John Leffingwell on the odor active enantiomers of the world's most important aromatic woods and modern replacement aroma chemicals.

Chirality & Bioactivity: Pharmacology - an article by John Leffingwell tracing the history & importance of chirality and bioactivity.

ESO 2000 (update 2006) - a major update of ESO - The Complete Database of Essential Oils. The new ESO 2000 (update 2006) has 33% more analyses with 21% more chemical compounds than its earlier version.

PMP 2001 Rated the Top Ranked Olfactory Database - In J. Chem. Inf. Model. 2006, 46, 32-38, Comparing the Information Content of Two Large Olfactory Databases by Marco Pintore, et. al., ..."But more important for the aim of this work, all validation and prediction scores associated with the PMP 2001 data sets were clearly superior to the Arctander ones, with differences ranging between 5 and 20%. Then, these results seem to indicate the information content included in the PMP 2001 database is more trustable and it should be adopted as reference database for deeper studies on more extended olfactory data sets."

I n  t h e  N e w s 
Articles and Information of interest to the Flavorist, Perfumer or those interested in the Chemistry of Natural Botanical properties. 
Special Features on this Site

Visit the BACIS web pages - now on our site (Boelens Aroma Chemical Information Service). Lots of free information.

  Olfaction - A Review

Menthol - A COOL Site:
  Menthol - Background & Organoleptic Properties
  Cool without Menthol & Cooler than Menthol
The Leffingwell Reports
  Odor and Flavor Detection Thresholds
  Search PubMed .... from our site
Phytochemical & Ethnobotanical Database Search... from our site 
  Lycopene - An Ultimate Phytochemical Nutraceutical?
  Carotenoid Precursors of Aroma Constituents
  Boronia - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Saffron - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Rose - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Osmanthus - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Tobacco - Aromas from Carotenoids
  Aldehydes - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  Alkenols: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  Burnt Sugar Notes: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  delta-Lactones - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  Esters - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  gamma-Lactones - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  Pyrazines - GRAS: Odor Properties and Molecular Visualization
  GC-MS analysis of hardwood smoke flavor.
  GC-MS analysis of Dark Fire-cured Tobacco
Download the Leffingwell Reports as Acrobat Reader (pdf) files
  VCF 2000 - Volatile Compounds in Food. VCF, the world authority on the occurrence of flavour chemicals, contains all data from the publication Volatile Compounds in Food, Qualitative and Quantitative Data, Seventh Edition (including all Supplements and revisions until Autumn 1999), by the TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute in Zeist, The Netherlands. (Co-editor: M.H. Boelens, BACIS, Huizen, The Netherlands.)
The database provides answers to questions such as: What volatile compounds occur in a particular product? In what products does a particular volatile compound occur? What is the range of concentrations of a compound in a particular product? Can a compound be considered a natural constituent of a particular product? What publications (reviews) have appeared with respect to a particular product in recent years?
VCF 2000 contains: 
Chemical Identities and CAS/FEMA-GRAS/CE numbers (if known) of more than 7,100 Flavour Chemicals; 
The Qualitative and Quantitative Occurrence of these Flavour Chemicals in about 450 Food Products; 
More than 4,500 references (including reviews) related to these products; 
Email: leffingwell@mindspring.com
Copyright © 1999-2008 by Leffingwell & Associates

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IFF 1st Qtr 2014 Sales - New York - May 6, 2014 - Reported net sales for the first quarter totaled $770.2 million, an increase of 5.8% from $727.8 million in the first quarter of 2013. Excluding the impact of foreign currency, local currency sales increased 7%. Local currency sales growth was 7% in the emerging markets and 5% in the developed markets. Sales to the emerging markets accounted for 49% of total company sales. As expected, our January 15th acquisition of Aromor contributed approximately 1% of growth to the sales increase. Net income totaled $106.7 million compared with net income of $90.7 million in the prior year first quarter. The Fragrances Business Unit reported a net sales increased of 8.7% to $403.7 million in the first quarter of 2014 compared with $371.5 million in the first quarter of 2013. The Flavors Business Unit reported a net sales increased of 2.8% to $366.5 million, compared with $356.4 million in the first quarter of 2013. Excluding the impact of foreign currency, Flavors local currency sales growth was 5% this quarter.

Robertet 1st Qtr 2014 Sales - 29 April 2014 - Robertet has reported revenues for the first quarter 2014 of 98.482 million euros, a decline of 2.2%, while in constant currency it would be the same level as 2013. The Fragrance Division was essentially flat with sales of 35.802 million euros compared to 35.756 million euros in 2013. Flavor sales decreased 4.3% to 36.431 million euros and Raw material sales decreased 2.6% to 25.657 million euros.

Sensient F&F 1st Qtr 2014 Sales - Milwaukee, Apr. 14, 2014 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported first quarter revenue of $213.4 million compared to the $215.8 million reported in last year’s first quarter. Operating income increased 5.4% to $29.9 million, compared to $28.4 million in the first quarter of 2013. The Flavors & Fragrances Group’s operating margin increased to 14.0% in the quarter.

Symrise to Acquire Diana Group - Holzminden, Germany - April 12, 2014 - Symrise AG has submitted a binding offer and has entered into exclusive discussions with the owners of Diana Group with regards to the acquisition of Diana Group, one of the most attractive assets in the flavor and nutrition space. With the planned transaction, Symrise will significantly expand its position in the Flavor & Nutrition market, strengthen its backward integration and expand its activities into the highly attractive Pet Food market. The investment amounts to EUR 1.3 billion, for which Symrise has already secured the required bridge financing. The final financing structure will comprise of debt and equity. The acquisition is expected to be fully EPS accretive from 2015 onwards. In 2013, Diana had sales of ca. EUR 425 million and an EBITDA margin of ca. 21 %. The proposed transaction is subject to consultation with the worker’s council and to antitrust clearance.

Givaudan 1st Qtr 2014 Sales - Geneva, 11 April 2014 – In the first three months of 2014 Givaudan recorded sales of CHF 1,087 million, a decline of 0.2% in Swiss francs and an increase of 5.7% on a like-for-like basis compared to the previous year (like-for-like basis excludes the impact of currency, acquisitions and disposals). The Fragrance Division recorded sales of CHF 516 million, a slight decrease of 0.2% in Swiss francs, and a growth of 5.6% on a like-for-like basis. The Flavour Division reported sales of CHF 571 million, representing 5.8% growth on a like-for-like basis and a decline of 0.1% in Swiss francs. Sales for Asia Pacific increased 10.5% on a like-for-like basis. Sales in Europe, Africa and the Middle East grew 3.5% on a like-for-like basis. Latin America experienced double-digit growth of 15.4% on a like-for-like basis. Sales increased by 0.2% on a like-for-like basis in North America. The developing markets grew by 9.8% on a like-for-like basis.

CPL Aromas Press Release on the Visually Impaired as Fragrance Evaluators – April 1, 2014 - The visually impaired have a heightened sense of odor perception. CPL Aromas encourages Fragrance Houses throughout the world to consider training and employing the visually challenged. (Note - When John Leffingwell was employed at the Glidden facility in Jacksonville [Now Renessenz] in 1964, the company employed six blind individuals in fragrance quality control. And no flavor or fragrance ingredient was ever released for shipment without their approval.)

Frutarom Full Year 2013 Sales - Haifa, Israel – March 19, 2014 - Frutarom's revenues Grew by 9% to US $674 Million; EBITDA increased by 15.5% to US $116 Million; Net profit rose 22% to US $64 Million. 4th Qtr. revenues for 2013 rose to US $192 million reflecting 6.2% organic growth. Frutarom revenues would have reached US$ 784 million and net profit would have been $70 million, if the four acquisitions made in 2013 had been consolidated as of Jan-1-2013.

Symrise Full Year 2013 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - March 13, 2014 - Symrise 2013 sales increased 5.5% to 1,830.4 million (+10% in local currencies). Group net income increased 9.4% to 172.3 million. Scent & Care 2013 sales increased 8.7% to 960 million (+13% in local currencies). Flavor & Nutrition 2013 sales increased 2.1% to 870 million (+7% in local currencies).

Kerry completes acquisition of Wynnstarr Flavors - Beloit, Wis., 11 March 2014 - On February 25, 2014 Kerry Group announced the acquisition of Wynnstarr Flavors. The acquisition was completed December 2, 2013. The acquisition of Wynnstarr, combined with Kerry’s recent acquisitions of Cargill Flavor Systems and FlavourCraft and earlier acquisitions of Agilex, Manheimer and Flavurence, reinforces Kerry’s position as a top global flavor house to food and beverage companies.

Robertet Full Year 2013 Sales - 24 February 2014 - Robertet has reported sales for 2013 of 389.489 million euros vs. 395.601 million euros in 2012 (-1.54%) . At constant exchange rates, sales were +1%.. The unaudited consolidated earnings were in line with expectations and amounted to slightly more than EUR 25 million, down about 8%. Final results will be published no later than 30 April 2014.

Givaudan to Acquire Soliance - Geneva, 21 February 2014 – Givaudan today announced that it has entered into exclusive negotiations to acquire 100% of the shares of Soliance SA and its subsidiaries. Soliance is currently a division of ARD (Agro Industrie Recherches & Développements). Soliance provides innovative cosmetic solutions to its international clients and partners and develops high added-value active ingredients, derived from vegetable sources, microorganisms and microalgae. Soliance currently has two sites in France, located in Pomacle and Ile Grande, and employs 77 people. While terms of the deal have not been disclosed, the Soliance operations would have represented approximately CHF 25 million of incremental sales to Givaudan’s results in 2013 on a proforma basis. Givaudan plans to fund the transaction from existing resources. The transaction is expected to close in the second quarter of 2014, subject to the customary closing approvals and conditions which includes consultations with the employee representative bodies.

Mane - Full Year 2013 Sales increase - February 19, 2014 - Mane achieved consolidated sales of 723.2 million in 2013, up 13.3% from 638.4 million in 2012 (personal communication).

IFF Full Year & 4th Qtr 2013 Sales - New York - Feb. 13, 2014 - Revenue for the full year increased 4.7% to $2,952.9 million. Local currency sales increased 5% for the full year. On a like-for-like basis (LFL), which excludes the exit of Flavors low-margin sales activities, local currency sales increased 6%. The emerging markets grew by 10% and accounted for 49% of full year sales. Full year Fragrance sales increased 6% to $1,530.2 million while Flavor sales increased 3.2% to $1,422.7 million. Fourth Qtr Sales increased 6.6 % to $725,169 million. Fourth Qtr Fragrance sales increased 7.9% to $382,216 million while Fourth Qtr Flavor sales increased 5.1% to $342,953 million. For the Full Year, net income increased 39.1% to $353,544 million.

Takasago 9 Month 2013-2014 Sales - February 13, 2014 - 9 Month sales for the year ending ear ending March 31 increased 9.8% to ¥ 99,357 million from the prior fiscal year while net income decreased 16.7% to ¥ 3,377 million.

Sensient F&F Full Year 2013 Sales - Milwaukee, Feb. 10, 2014 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported full year revenue of $881.3 million in 2013, up from $875.3 million last year. Operating income was $122.4 million in 2013 and $123.0 million in 2012. The Flavors & Fragrances Group’s operating margins were 13.9% in 2013 and 14.1% in 2012. The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported 4th quarter revenue of $210.1 million compared to the $216.9 million reported in the comparable period last year. Operating income increased 2% to $29.2 million, compared to $28.7 million in last year’s fourth quarter. Sensient includes "dehydrated vegetables" - now referred to as "natural ingredients", in their Flavors & Fragrances sales numbers. In 2013 this was 27% of sales. Accordingly, 2013 sales for conventional Flavors & Fragrances were ~$643.3 million.

Givaudan Full Year 2013 Sales - Geneva, 30 January 2014 – Givaudan Group full year sales were CHF 4,369 million, an increase of 5.5% on a like-for-like basis and 2.6% in Swiss francs vs. 2012. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 2,083 million, an increase of 5.1% on a like-for-like basis and 3.0% in Swiss francs. Flavour Division sales were CHF 2,286 million, an increase of 5.8% on a like-for-like basis and 2.3% in Swiss francs. Gross margin increased to 44.7% from 42.4%. Net income increased to CHF 490 million in 2013 from CHF 410 million in 2012, an increase of 19.5%.

IFF Acquires Aromor- New York-Jan. 16, 2014-- International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. announced that it has completed the acquisition of Aromor Flavors and Fragrances Ltd., a privately held manufacturer and marketer of complex specialty ingredients that are used in fragrances and flavors. While terms of the transaction have not been disclosed, the Aromor operations would have represented approximately $35 million of incremental sales to IFF’s results in 2013 on a proforma basis. IFF funded the transaction from existing resources. Aromor will become part of the IFF Fragrances Ingredients business and is expected to be accretive to IFF’s earnings per share in 2014.

Frutarom 9 Month 2013 Sales - Haifa, Israel – November 27, 2013 - In the first nine months of 2013 Frutarom’s sales rose to $481.9 million, up 1.85% from 2012. 9 month Flavor sales flavor sales grew 2.8% to $355.1 million. Net profit for the first nine months increased 17.4% to $48.7 million. Net profit net of one-time expenses increased 22.3% to $50.3 million.

Takasago Half Year 2013-2014 Sales - November 13, 2013 - Takasago's half year sales for the period ending September 30, 2013 increased 10.1% to ¥ 66,234 million from ¥60,152 million in the prior year. In terms of profits, operating income was ¥ 4,388 million (up 15.2% year on year), and ordinary income was ¥ 4,604 million (up 20.0% year on year). Net income came to ¥ 2,178 million (down 17.5% year on year) as a result of posting a ¥ 1,338 million loss for the fire accident at Hiratsuka Factory. The Flavors segment recorded net sales of ¥ 41,428 million (up 10.4% year on year), mainly reflecting growth in sales at subsidiaries in the United States. In the Fragrances segment, net sales came to ¥ 16,179 million (up 19.0% year on year), as sales remained strong at subsidiaries in Asia. In the Aroma Chemicals segment, net sales were ¥ 5,405 million (up 17.1% year on year) mainly attributable to the positive effect of foreign exchange. In the Fine Chemicals segment, net sales were ¥ 2,550 million (down 31.1% year on year) due to the dismal performance of pharmaceutical intermediates. In the Real Estate segment, net sales were ¥ 670 million (down 6.5% year on year).

T. Hasegawa Full Year 2012-2013 Sales Results - November 8, 2013 - for the 12 months ending September 30, 2013 T. Hasegawa's consolidated net sales were up 1.6% to ¥ 45,104 million compared to ¥ 44,386 in the prior year. Net income for the period increased 36.0% to ¥ 3,518 million.

Symrise 9 Month 2013 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - November 5, 2013 - Symrise 9 months 2013 sales increased 6.2% to 1,401.2 million (+9.9% in local currencies). Scent & Care 9 month 2013 sales increased 9.8% to 736.3 million (+13.5% in local currencies). Flavor & Nutrition 9 month 2013 sales increased 2.5% to 664.9 million (+6.2% in local currencies).

IFF 9 Month & 3 Qtr 2013 Sales - New York, November 5, 2013 - IFF 9 months net sales increased 4.1% to $2,227.7 million while 3d Qtr sales increased 4.7% to $742.3 million. 9 month Flavor sales increased 2.6% to $1079.8 million while 3d Qtr Flavor sales increased 2.6% to $349.4 million. 9 month Fragrance sales increased 5.4% to $1147.9 million while 3d Qtr Fragrance sales increased 6.7% to $392.9 million.

Sensient F&F 3d Qtr & 9 Month 2013 Sales - Milwaukee, Oct. 17, 2013 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported 3d Qtr revenue of $226.27 million vs $224.7 million in 2012 (+0.7%). For the 9 month period, sales increased 2% to $671.23 million.

Robertet 9 Month 2013 Sales - 14 October 2013 - Robertet has reported 9 month sales for 2013 of 298.056 million euros, a decrease of -2.37% from 2012.

Firmenich 2012-2013 Sales - Oct. 10, 2013 - For the financial year ended June 30, 2013, Firmenich posted sales of CHF 2,890 million, an increase of 9.6%. Perfumery posted single-digit sales growth in local currencies. Flavors recorded high single-digit sales growth while Ingredients sales were down slightly in fiscal year 2012-2013.

Givaudan 9 Month 2013 Sales - Geneva, 10 October 2013 – In the first nine months of 2013 Givaudan recorded sales of CHF 3,318 million, an increase of 5.0% on a like-for-like¹ basis and 2.7% in Swiss francs compared to the previous year. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 1,579 million for the first nine months of 2013, an increase of 4.5% on a like-for-like basis and 3.0% in Swiss francs. Flavour Division sales were CHF 1,739 million during the first nine months of 2013, an increase of 5.4% on a like-for-like basis and 2.4% in Swiss Francs. (Note*- like-for-like excludes the impact of currency, acquisitions and disposals).

Robertet 1st Half 2013 Sales - 13 September 2013 - Robertet has reported 1st Half sales for 2013 of 203.543 million euros, a decrease of -0.6% over 2012.

T. Hasegawa 9 Months 2012-2013 Sales Results - August, 2013 - for the 9 months ending June 30, 2013 T. Hasegawa's consolidated net sales were up 1.2% to ¥ 33,194 million compared to ¥ 32,792 in the prior year. Net income for the period increased 30.3% to ¥ 2,785 million.

Takasago 1st Qtr 2013-2014 Sales - August 12, 2013 - Takasago 1st Qtr sales for the period April 1 to June 30, 2013 increased 6.6% to ¥ 32,773 million from the prior year.

Frutarom 1st Half 2013 Sales - Haifa, Israel – August 21, 2013 - Frutarom’s 1st Half 2013 revenues increased 1.5% to US $320.8 million while income rose to 31.6 million (+17%). 2 Qtr revenues were US $168.6 million, a 2.3% increase in USD compared to Q2 2012.

Symrise 1st Half & 2 Qtr 2013 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - August 7, 2013 - Symrise 1st Half 2013 sales increased 7.2% to 934.7 million (+9.5% in local currencies) compared to the prior year. 2 Qtr sales increased 8.7% to 477.1 million. Net income for the 1st Half increased 7.7% to 93.4 million. Scent & Care 1st Half 2013 sales increased 10.3% to 490.3 million (+12.5% in local currencies). Flavor & Nutrition 1st Half 2013 sales increased 4.0% to 444.4 million (+6.5% in local currencies).

IFF 1st Half & 2 Qtr 2013 Sales - New York, August 6, 2013 - IFF net sales increased 3.7% in the 1st half of 2013 to $1485.5 million. Net income for the 1st half 2013 increased 13.8% to $193 million. 2d Qtr net sales were $757.6 million (+5.0%). In the 2d Qtr, like-for-like sales, which excludes the impact of foreign currency and the exit of low-margin sales activities in Flavors, increased 8%. 1st half 2013 Fragrance sales were up 4.8% to $755.1 million. 2d Qtr Fragrance sales were $383.6 million (+6.6%). 1st half 2013 Flavor sales increased 2.7% to $730.4 million. 2d Qtr Flavor sales were $374 million (+3.5%).

Sensient F&F 1st Half & 2d Qtr 2013 Sales - Milwaukee, July 26, 2013 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported half year revenue of $445 million vs. $433.6 million in 2012 (+ 2.6%). 2 Qtr F&F revenue was $227.9 million vs. $218.9 million in 2012 (+ 4.1%).

Givaudan Half year 2013 Sales - Geneva, 25 July 2013 – Givaudan Group sales for the first six months of the year totalled CHF 2,225 million, an increase of 5.7% on a like-for-like basis and 4.7% in Swiss francs. Fragrance Division sales were CHF 1,047 million, an increase of 5.5% on a like-for-like basis and 5.3% in Swiss francs. Flavour Division sales were CHF 1,178 million, an increase of 5.8% on a like-for-like basis and 4.1% in Swiss francs. Net income for the first six months of 2013 was CHF 271 million compared to CHF 200 million in 2012, an increase of 35.5%. This results in a net profit margin of 12.2%, versus 9.4% in 2012.

Wild Flavors Full Year 2012 Sales - July 16, 2013 - For 2012 Wild Flavors has reported sales of 838 million, an increase of 29% from 650 million in 2011. On November 1, 2011, Wild Flavors acquired all shares in A. M. Todd India Pvt. Ltd. and certain assets and liabilities of A. M. Todd and its applicable subsidiaries in the US, the UK and France. On June 29, 2012, Wild Flavors and Cargill entered into a sale of business agreement for the acquisition of production facilities and working capital positions relating to Cargill's juice and blends business located in the Netherlands, the US and Japan. The company with its origins in Heidelberg, Germany was established in 1931. On January 27, 2010 entrepreneur Dr. Hans-Peter Wild entered into a strategic alliance with the international private equity firm Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P. (KKR) that now holds a 35% stake in the business.

Takasago Full Year 2012-2013 Sales - May 20, 2013 - Takasago sales increased 4.7% to ¥ 118,973 million from the prior year ending March 31. Net income increased to ¥ 4673 million from ¥ 1,774 milllion (+163.4%)

Symrise 1st Qtr 2013 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - May 7, 2013 - Symrise 1st Qtr 2013 sales increased 5.8% to 457.6 million (+7.9% in local currencies) compared to the prior-year-quarter. Net income for the quarter in creased 6.9% to 46 million. Scent & Care sales increased 8.9% to 245.0 million (+11.1% in local currencies). Flavor & Nutrition sales increased 2.3% to 212.6 million (+4.3% in local currencies).

IFF 1st Qtr 2013 Sales - New York, May 7, 2013 - IFF net sales for the first quarter totaled $727.8 million, an increase of 2% from $710.6 million in the first quarter of 2012. Excluding the impact of foreign currency, local currency sales increased 3%. On a like-for-like basis, which excludes the exit of low-margin sales activities in Flavors, local currency sales increased 4%. Net income totaled $90.7 million for the Qtr, compared with net income of $81.1 million in 2012 (+18.4%). The Fragrances Business sales increased 3% to $371.5 million. The Flavors Business Unit sales increased 2% to $356.4 million.

Sensient F&F 1st Qtr 2013 Sales - Milwaukee, April 18, 2013 - The Flavors & Fragrances Group reported revenue of $217.0 million in the 1st Qtr of 2013, compared to $214.7 million in the comparable period in 2012. Operating income for the quarter was $28.9 million compared to $29.1 million in last year’s first quarter. The Flavors Business Unit

Givaudan 1st Qtr 2013 Sales - Geneva, 16 April 2013 – In the first three months of 2013 Givaudan recorded sales of CHF 1,088.9 million, an increase of 3.9% on a like-for-like basis, and 2.7% in Swiss francs compared to the previous year. The Fragrance Division recorded sales of CHF 517.1 million, a growth of 4.2% on a like-for-like basis and 3.6% in Swiss francs. Sales growth has been driven by the good growth in Consumer Products, whereas sales in Fine Fragrances and Fragrances Ingredients were lower than in the first quarter of 2012. The Flavour Division reported sales of CHF 571.8 million, representing a 3.7% growth on a like-for-like basis and 1.9% in Swiss francs.

Robertet 1st Qtr 2013 Sales - 15 April 2013 - Robertet has reported 1st Qtr sales for 2013 of 100.712 million euros, an increase of 0.75% over 2012. Fragrance sales increased 2.53 % to 35.756 million euros. Flavour sales decreased 1.6% to 38.081 million euros and Ingredient sales increased 0.5 % to 26.332 million euros.

Senomyx & Firmenich Amend Their Sweet Taste Program Agreement - April 11, 2013 - Senomyx and Firmenich announced that the companies have amended and restated their Sweet Taste Program collaboration agreement. The amended agreement provides that Firmenich will have exclusive rights to commercialize certain Senomyx sweet flavor ingredients discovered under the collaboration in food and select beverage product categories for a period of time. After this initial period, Senomyx will begin selling the flavor ingredients to other flavor companies while Firmenich continues sales to food and beverage companies. Senomyx’s initiation of its new direct sales strategy is intended to accelerate the Company’s transformation into a profitable company by expanding its focus from discovery & development into commercialization. Senomyx’s flavor ingredient portfolio will initially focus on sweet flavor modifiers, which can be used to restore the desired taste profile of products in which sucrose has been reduced. The first product will be S9632, which Senomyx intends to sell to flavor companies for end-use in non-alcoholic and powdered beverages, with the anticipated availability of commercial quantities of S9632 by the fourth quarter of 2013. The sweet flavor modifier S6973 will become available for sale by Senomyx for use in food and certain beverage categories at a future date. In addition, Senomyx may also decide in the future to directly commercialize other flavor ingredients to expand its portfolio and further support the direct sales strategy. Concurrent with the amendment, Senomyx and Firmenich have also entered into a Supply Agreement under which Firmenich has agreed to supply Senomyx with commercial quantities of certain sweet flavor ingredients. The Supply Agreement has a term of ten years, and is exclusive through 2017. This relationship streamlines and accelerates the launch of Senomyx’s direct sales strategy, without the Company having to incur the cost of sourcing and establishing manufacturing capabilities at this time.

FEMA GRAS List 26 - 5 February 2013 - Now available: 26. GRAS Flavoring Substances List: This list of substances will appear in the 26th publication (GRAS 26) authored by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association on recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) under conditions of their intended use in food flavorings in accordance with the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

Frutarom 1st Qtr 2014 Sales - Haifa, Israel – May 21, 2014 - Frutarom sales in Q1 2014 grew by 23.9% to reach US$188.5 million. Net profit rose 30.5% to reach US$18.3 million for the quarter. Flavor Activity sales for Q1 2014 increased by 21.3% reaching a first quarter record US$134.2 million, 71.2% of Frutarom’s total sales, compared with US$110.6 million in the same quarter last year. Currency fluctuations contributed 1.2% to growth. The acquisitions made during 2013 and at the beginning of 2014 contributed US$19 million to sales. Organic growth (net of the contribution from the acquisitions) in the Flavor Activity reached 4.2%.

Takasago Full Year 2013-2014 Sales - May 14, 2014 - Takasago sales increased 10.1% to ¥ 131,036 million from ¥ 118,973 in the prior year ending March 31. Net income decreased to ¥ 3,025 million from ¥ 4673 milllion.

T. Hasegawa Half Year 2013-2014 Sales Results - May 9, 2014 - for the 1st 6 months ending March 31, 2014, T. Hasegawa reported sales of ¥ 21,696 million compared to ¥ 21,079 million in the prior year period, an increase of 2.9%.

Symrise 1st Qtr 2014 Sales - Holzminden, Germany - May 6, 2014 - Symrise 1st Qtr 2014 total sales increased 2.6% in euros (and 7.9% in local currencies) to 469.6 million from 457.6 million in the 1st Qtr 2013. The Scent & Care division grew to 254.6 million from 245 million in the previous year (+3.9% in euros, while in local currency, this corresponds to + 9.3 %). Flavor & Nutrition generated sales of 215 million in the first quarter of 2014 (up from: 212.6 million in 2013). This corresponds to an increase of 6.2 % in local currency and +1.1% in euros.

Givaudan Acquires Soliance - June 3, 2014 - Geneva, 3 June 2014 – Givaudan announced that it has acquired 100% of the shares of Soliance SA and its subsidiaries. Gilles Andrier, CEO of Givaudan, said: “Soliance represents Givaudan’s first acquisition since that of Quest. Its current portfolio of active cosmetic ingredients and strong process development and research capabilities fit well into the five strategic pillars of Givaudan.” Soliance currently has two sites in France, located in Pomacle and Ile Grande, and employs 96 people. While terms of the deal have not been disclosed, the Soliance operations would have represented approximately CHF 25 million of incremental sales to Givaudan’s results in 2013 on a proforma basis. Givaudan will fund the transaction from existing resources.

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Cool without Menthol & Cooler than Menthol and Cooling Compounds as Insect Repellents - Updated April 20, 2015

Chirality & Odour Perception - Updated March 28, 2015 (now with over 1,412 enantiomers)

Updated EU Flavoring Regulations - as of April 2015

Japanese Flavoring Agents as Food Additives - as of April 2015

New - China Flavor Regulations - On 24 December 2014, The National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China (NHFPC) announced that the China National Standards for Food Additives (GB 2760-2014), which includes the latest list of flavoring ingredients, would go into effect on May 24, 2015. This regulation contains a more complete (and updated) list of flavor ingredients than the flavoring regulation GB 29938-2013,which defines the purity standards for flavor chemicals, that took effect June 1, 2014.

A Green and Sustainable Approach: Celebrating the 30th Anniversary of the Asymmetric l-Menthol Process - November 2014 - Takasago has been devoted to producing l-menthol since 1954, and our long history of manufacturing this important aroma chemical is reviewed here. The current asymmetric catalytic process had its 30th anniversary in 2013. Our l-menthol process is considered carbon-neutral, and, therefore, ‘green’ and sustainable. It uses renewable myrcene obtained from gum rosin as a starting material. In addition, the Rh-BINAP (=2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl) catalytic system is highly efficient. This pathway not only leads l-menthol, but a variety of 100% biobased aroma chemical products as well. By measuring the 14C levels in a material, one can determine the percentage of carbon that is biobased. This biobased assay, described as the ratio plant-derived C/fossil-derived C, can clarify how renewable a product really is. This will be highlighted for several of Takasago's key aroma chemicals.

FEMA Interim GRAS List - November 27 2014 - FEMA has released the latest interim GRAS list which includes five new additions. Trans-6-octenal (FEMA 4787) is a known compound with a green melon character having an odor threshold in mineral oil of 0.015 ppm and a flavor threshold in mineral oil of 0.001 ppm. See Mans H. Boelens, Organoleptic Properties of Aliphatic Aldehydes, Perfumer & Flavorist, Vol, 12, October/November 1987, pp. 31-43...

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FEMA # 4798 is 2-(((3-(2,3-Dimethoxyphenyl)-1H -1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)thio)methyl)pyridine - a Senomyx compound which is an umami enhancer . See Catherine Tachdjian et al., Compounds comprising linked heteroaryl moieties and their use as novel umami flavor modifiers, tastants and taste enhancers for comestible compositions, United States Patent Application 20130071536, Published: 03/21/2013.

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FEMA # 4802 is (S)-1-(3-(((4-amino-2,2-dioxido-1H benzo[c][1,2,6]thiadiazin-5-yl)oxy)methyl)piperidin-1-yl)-3-methylbutan-1-one - a Senomyx compound which is a sweetness enhancer. See Catherine Tachdjian et al., Sweet flavor modifier, United States Patent Application 20140094453, Published: 04/03/2014.

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FEMA # 4809 is 2-(4-Methylphenoxy)-N -(1H -pyrazol-3-yl)-N -(thiophen-2-ylmethyl)acetamide - a Senomyx compound which is a cooling agent. See Chad Priest et al., Compounds useful as modulators of TRPM8, United States Patent Application 20130324557, Published: 12/05/2013. See also Torsten Kulke et al. (Symrise AG), Preparations, WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/090293, Published: 06/19/2014 for additional comments on the Senomyx work.

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FEMA # 4815 is Sandalwood austrocaledonicum oil (Santalum austrocaledonicum) [syn. New Caledonian sandalwood oil] which is closer in the santalol composition to East Indian sandalwood oil (Santalum album) than its Western Australian counterpart. See the CBI Factsheet for comparative santalols analysis. See Geographic and phenotypic variation in heartwood and essential-oil characters in natural populations of Santalum austrocaledonicum in Vanuatu and New Caledonian Sandalwood Oil - a Substitute for East Indian Sandalwood Oil? for more information.

FEMA - Safety Assessment and Regulatory Authority to Use Flavors: Focus on E-Cigarettes

FEMA - The FEMA GRAS™ Status of Flavors – Focus on Biotechnology and Other New Methods of Production - Discusses the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the production of flavoring substances.

IOFI Global (Flavourings) Reference List (GRL) - Released December 2014 - contains all FEMA, EU Flavis and JECFA materials.

IOFI Natural Complex (Flavourings) Substances (GRL) - Released February 2013 - contains all FEMA, FDA and COE materials.

Natural flavours ‘identified in nature’ to have major industry impact - report - January 2, 2012

Aspects of Oral Perception

Flavor Properties of GRAS List 25 flavor chemicals

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Chemistry and the Sense of Smell - This book by Charles Sell provides an account of the totality of fragrance chemistry in one volume. It describes the chemistry of odorous materials, how and why they are produced in nature, how they are produced and used commercially, how they are analyzed and characterized, the chemistry of how we perceive them, and their role in our everyday lives. The final chapter reviews the major intellectual challenges for fragrance chemists and considers the future of the field.

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Scent and Chemistry - This book is the long awaited completely revised and extended edition of Günther Ohloff's standard work "Scent and Fragrances: The Fascination of Odors and Their Chemical Perspectives". The prominent chemists Günther Ohloff, Wilhelm Pickenhagen, and Philip Kraft convey the scientist, the perfumer, as well as the interested layman with a vivid and up-to-date picture of the state of the art of the chemistry of odorants and the research in odor perception. The book details on the molecular basis of olfaction, olfactory characterization of perfumery materials, structure-odor relationships, the chemical synthesis of odorants, and the chemistry of essential oils and odorants from the animal kingdom, backed up by ca. 400 perfumery examples and historical aspects.

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The Chemistry and Biology of Volatiles (August 2010) - A Fascinating book edited by Andreas Herrmann of Firmenich. Volatile compounds are molecules with a relatively low molecular weight allowing for an efficient evaporation into the air. They are found in many areas of our everyday-life: they are responsible for the communication between species such as plants, insects or mammals; they serve as flavours or fragrances in many food products or perfumed consumer articles.

Firmenich's New Enantioselective Synthesis of (-)-beta-Santalol

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Charles Fehr and co-workers at Firmenich have designed the "right cat for the desired odor". In WIPO Patent Application WO/2009/141781 (November 26, 2009), they disclose a novel, and seemingly practical, approach to the synthesis of beta-Santalol (the Golden Grail of Sandalwood odor). See also - Charles Fehr, Iris Magpantay, Jeremy Arpagaus, Xavier Marquet, Magali Vuagnoux, Enantioselective Synthesis of (-)-beta-Santalol by a Copper-Catalyzed Enynol Cyclization-Fragmentation Reaction, Angewandte Chemie, Volume 121, Issue 39, Date: September 14, 2009, Pages: 7357-7359

PMP 2001
Database of Perfumery Materials & Performance
Chemical Identities, Odour Descriptions, Performance, Application and references to RIFM monographs (where possible) of more than 4,100 perfumery materials; Stability Records of all materials in 21 endproducts and in water pH 1 - 12; More than 3,200 Commercial Names and Synonyms with suppliers; The possibility to search on Chemical Identity, CAS number, Odour Description and Stability. 

FRM 2001 - The Complete Database of Flavour (Raw) Materials
Chemical identities, Chemical Abstracts Service registry numbers (CAS), FEMA-GRAS Substance numbers and Council of Europe numbers of more than 5,500 Flavour Materials; among these are all GRAS lists materials and more than 1,400 materials from natural sources; More than 550 suppliers for these materials, with addresses, telephone and fax numbers; An indication of the Occurrence, Flavour and Application of each material; One or two references of the most recent literature on more than 4,500 materials. 

The Musk & Fragrance Controversy - download the Draft for public hearing from the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation entitled Fragrances 2000

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