Edible oleoresins are natural isolates obtained by extracting plant material with suitable solvents and recovering of the solvent, mostly by evaporation. The residue is called the oleoresin.
Various types of solvents are used to extract oleoresins, e.g. hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, ketones and carbon dioxide. The oleoresins contain all the chemical compounds, volatile and non-volatile, which are soluble in the chosen solvent.
The extracted volatile constituents also called the essential oil may concern some hundreds of compounds, most of which are unknown. The volatile part of the oleoresin is responsible for the flavouring properties by smelling of the product.
The isolated non-volatile components consist of several groups of chemical compounds, such as carotenoids, steroids, alkaloids, anthocyanins, glycosides etc. The non-volatile constituent of the oleoresin can be important for the tasting, colouring, mouthfeeling, and biting, antioxidative properties of the material.
Oleoresins are economically useful, for instance because of their facile application, their higher concentration of organoleptically interesting substances, e.g. smelling and tasting compounds, their content of colouring and antioxidative constituents.
A series of edible oleoresins will be discussed, such as anise, caraway, carrot seed, citrus peels, coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek, hop, laurel leaf, marjoram spanish, origanum, paprika, pepper, peppermint, rosemary, thyme.
Their most interesting chemical components will be mentioned. The character-impact volatile constituents will be shown.
Some important non-volatile tasting, colouring and antioxidative compounds will be treated. The organoleptic quality of the edible oleoresins will be discussed in more detail.
[ See for the full article: Perfumer & Flavorist, Volume 25, Number 4, July/August 2000. ]
Reprinted by Leffingwell & Associates, 2006, with Permission