The BACIS Archives
[ BNB - 96122 ]
- Production of Essential Oils
During the last two decades a series of publications about the
production of essential oils and other volatile natural isolates have
appeared. The production methods for volatile natural products have
improved significantly in recent years, especially since the
introduction of continuous processes.
The main aspects of the production of essential oils are the
preparation of the plantmaterial, the isolation methods, the yields
and economics, and the quality control. The preparation of the
plantmaterial may concern harvesting, threshing, drying, grinding,
chipping, hydrolysis and fermentative conversion.
Volatile natural isolates, including essential oils, are
manufactured by expression, by distillation or by extraction. Citrus
oils, for instance, can be produced by expression, such as the
Italian pellatrice and sfumatrice methods, the American Brown oil
extractor, and the FMC apparatus. For the production of, for example,
leaf, seed and flower oils steamdistillation, hydrodistillation and
hydrodiffusion are applied. Other natural isolates are obtained by
solvent extraction or by supercritical fluid carbondioxide
Some important publications are shown below. Summaries of these
publications are available from BACIS.
- Bernhard Meyer-Warnod, Natural Essential Oils. Extraction
Processes and Application to Some Major Oils. Perf. Flav., Vol. 9,
93-103 (April/May 1984).
- Jean-François Arnaudo, Le Goût du Naturel - The
Taste of Nature. Private publ. BIOLANDES AROMES, 23, Villa
Marie-Justine, 92100 Boulogne (France), (1992).
- José H. Flores and Guillermo T. Segredo, Citrus Oil
Recovery During Juice Extraction. Perf. Flav., Vol. 21, 13-15
- Mans H. Boelens et al., Ten Years of Hydrodiffusion of Oils.
Perf. Flav., Vol. 15, 11-14 (September/October 1990).
- G.R. Boucard and R.W. Serth, A Continuous Steam Stripping
Process for the Distillation of Essential Oils. Perf. Flav., Vol.
16, 1-8 (March/April 1991).
- E.F.K. Denny, The modern approach to essential oil
distillation from the herb. Proceedings of the International
Conference on Essential Oils, Flavours, Fragrances and Cosmetics,
pp. 161-165. Beijing, China, 9-13 October 1988.
- E.F.K. Denny, Steam Distillation of the Subcutaneous Essential
Oils. In: Flavors and Fragrances: A World Perspective. Proc. of
the 10th Intern. Congress of Essential Oils, Fragrances and
Flavors, pp. 85-98, Washington (DC), U.S.A., 16-20 November 1986.
B.M. Lawrence, B.D. Mookherjee and B.J. Willis (Editors), Elsevier
Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1988).
- J. Kroon, Vacuumdistillation in the Aromachemical Industry
(1979). Research Centre Naarden International. Private publ.
NAARDEN INTERNATIONAL. Now: QUEST INTERNATIONAL, Naarden, The
- D.A. Moyler et al., Ten Years of Carbondioxide Extracted Oils.
Proceedings 12th ICEOFF Vienna, Austria, October 1992.
- B.M. Lawrence, The Isolation of Aromatic Materials from
Natural Plant Products, pp. 57-154. In: A Manual on the Essential
Oil Industry, Editor K. Tuley De Silva, UNIDO, Vienna, Austria
- Mans H. Boelens, Production of Essential Oils. In: Proceedings
of the 27th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ESSENTIAL OILS, September
8-11, 1996, Vienna, Austria (to be published in 1997).
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